Royal Netherlands Navy

(Redirected from Dutch_Navy)

The Royal Netherlands Navy (Dutch: Koninklijke Marine) is the naval force of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.[2] Its origins date back to the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), the war of independence from the House of Habsburg who ruled over the Habsburg Netherlands.

Royal Netherlands Navy
Koninklijke Marine
Emblem of the Royal Netherlands Navy
Founded8 January 1488; 533 years ago
Country Netherlands
Size7,342 Active military personnel (2020)[1]

5(1) frigates
4 offshore patrol vessels

5 minehunters
1 Joint Support Ship
2 landing platform docks
4 submarines
40 other ships

19 helicopters
Part ofArmed forces of the Netherlands
HeadquartersDen Helder
Motto(s)"Veiligheid op en vanuit zee."
Security on and from the sea.
MarchRoyal Netherlands Navy Service Marchpast
EngagementsEighty Years' War
Dutch–Portuguese War
Anglo-Dutch Wars
War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Quadruple Alliance
French Revolutionary Wars
World War II
Korean War
Battle of Arafura Sea
CommanderVice-Admiral Rob Kramer
Deputy commanderRear admiral Huub Hulsker
Michiel de Ruyter, Piet Hein, Maarten Tromp
Naval ensign
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Naval jack
Logo marine.svg
Aircraft flown

During the 17th century, the navy of the Dutch Republic (1581–1795) was one of the most powerful naval forces in the world and played an active role in the Anglo-Dutch Wars, the Franco-Dutch War, and wars against Spain and several other European powers. The Batavian Navy of the later Batavian Republic (1795–1806) and Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810) played an active role in the Napoleonic Wars, though mostly dominated by French interests.

After the establishment of the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands, it served an important role in protecting Dutch colonial rule, especially in Southeast Asia, and would play a minor role in World War II, especially against the Imperial Japanese Navy. Since World War II, the Royal Netherlands Navy has taken part in expeditionary peacekeeping operations.



The main naval base is in Den Helder, North Holland. Secondary naval bases are in Amsterdam, Vlissingen, Texel, and Willemstad (Curaçao). Netherlands Marine Corps barracks are in Rotterdam, Doorn, Suffisant on Curaçao, and Savaneta on Aruba.

Officer training

Officers of the Nederland Navy are trained at the Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine ("Royal Naval Institute"), which is part of the Nederlandse Defensie Academie ("Netherlands defence academy") in Den Helder.[3] Around 100–150 people start training every year.

Ship prefixes

An international prefix for ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy is HNLMS (His/Her Netherlands Majesty's Ship).[4] The Netherlands navy itself uses the prefixes Zr.Ms. (Zijner Majesteits, His Majesty's) when a king is on the throne, and Hr.Ms. (Harer Majesteits, Her Majesty's) when there is a queen. This happens automatically at the moment the previous monarch ceases to reign.[5]


The modern Netherlands Navy dates its founding to a "statute of admiralty" issued by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I on 8 January 1488.[6] Naval historians trace the origins of an independent Dutch navy to the early stages of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) while the formation of a "national" navy is dated to the establishment of the Dutch Republic in 1597.[7]

Netherlands Golden Age

The Netherlands navy was involved in several wars against other European powers from the late 16th century, initially for independence against Spain in European waters, later for shipping lanes, trade and colonies in many parts of the world, notably in four Anglo-Dutch wars against England. During the 17th century the Dutch navy was one of the most powerful navies in the world. As an organization, the navy of the Dutch Republic consisted of five separate admiralties (three of them in Holland, and one each in Friesland and Zeeland), each with its own ships, personnel, shipyards, command structures and revenues.[8]

World War II

HNLMS Java, ca. 1941
Piet de Jong, commanding officer of HNLMS Gelderland in 1958

At the start of WW2 the Dutch had five cruisers, eight destroyers, 24 submarines, and smaller vessels, along with 50 obsolete aircraft. The Netherlands was conquered in 1940 by Nazi Germany in a matter of days, and two Dutch light cruisers and one destroyer leader and three destroyers that were under construction were captured in their shipyard.

For the rest of the war, the Dutch navy was based in Allied countries: the Dutch navy had its headquarters in London, and smaller units in Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka) and Western Australia. Around the world Dutch naval units were responsible for transporting troops, for example during Operation Dynamo at Dunkirk and on D-Day, they escorted convoys and attacked enemy targets. Dutch submarines scored some victories, including one on a Kriegsmarine U-boat U-95 in the Mediterranean Sea, which was sunk by O 21, but during the war the Dutch Navy suffered heavy losses, particularly in the Pacific Theatre.

A small force of submarines based in Western Australia sank more Japanese ships in the first weeks after Japan joined the war than the entire British and American navies together during the same period, an exploit which earned Admiral Helfrich the nickname "Ship-a-day Helfrich".[9] The aggressive pace of operations against the Japanese was a contributing factor to both the heavy losses sustained and the greater number of successes scored as compared to the British and Americans in the region.

But during the relentless Japanese offensive of February through April 1942 in the Dutch East Indies, the Dutch navy in Asia was virtually annihilated, particularly in the Battle of the Java Sea (27 February 1942) in which the commander, Karel Doorman, went down with his fleet along with 1,000 sailors. The Navy sustained losses of a total of 20 ships (including two of its three light cruisers) and 2,500 sailors killed in the course of the campaign.[10] The Dutch navy had suffered from years of underfunding and came ill-prepared to face an enemy with more and heavier ships with better weapons, including the Long Lance-torpedo, with which the cruiser Haguro sank the light cruiser HNLMS De Ruyter.[11]

Netherlands New Guinea

After the war, the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies changed dramatically. The establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, two days after the Japanese surrender, thwarted the Dutch plans for restoring colonial authority. After four years of war the Netherlands acknowledged the independence of Indonesia.

Part of the Dutch Navy was next stationed in Netherlands New Guinea until that, too, was turned over to the Indonesian government in 1962. This followed a campaign of infiltrations by the Indonesian National Armed Forces, supported by modern equipment from the Soviet Union, that was nevertheless successfully repulsed by the Dutch navy. These infiltrations took place after the order of President Sukarno to integrate the territory as an Indonesian province.

NATO cooperation

The Standing NRF Maritime Group 1 in 2007 with HNLMS Evertsen second from the right

With the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the military focus was on the army and air force; it was not until the Korean War (1950–53) that the navy got more recognition. The government allowed the creation of a balanced fleet consisting of two naval squadrons. Apart from the aircraft carrier HNLMS Karel Doorman the Dutch navy consisted of two light cruisers (two De Zeven Provinciën class), 12 destroyers (four Holland class, eight Friesland class), eight submarines, six frigates ( van Speijk-class frigates), and a considerable number of minesweepers.

As a member of NATO, the Netherlands developed its security policy in close cooperation with other members. The establishment of the Warsaw pact in 1955 intensified the arms race between West and East. Technical innovations rapidly emerged, the introduction of radar and sonar were followed by nuclear weapon systems and long-range missiles. The geopolitical situation allowed for a fixed military strategy. Beginning in 1965, the Dutch Navy joined certain permanent NATO squadrons like the Standing Naval Force Atlantic.

Current structure

The constituent parts of the Royal Netherlands Navy are:

Naval squadron

Contains all surface combatants, replenishment ships, and amphibious support ships.

Submarine service

Houses the submarines and a support vessel.

Mine Detection and Clearing Service

Contains various minehunters.

Hydrographic Survey

The Dienst der Hydrografie (Hydrographic Service) is responsible for relevant hydrographic surveys.

Naval aviation

Two NH90 helicopter squadrons equipped with based at De Kooy Airfield.

Netherlands Marine Corps

Netherlands & Dutch Caribbean Coastguard

Although the Netherlands Coastguard is not an official part of the Navy, it is under its operational control. Also the Dutch Caribbean Coast Guard is under the operational control of the Navy and is commanded by the commander of the Navy in the Caribbean.



The Royal Netherlands Navy currently operates 7 main classes of vessels:

Note: in the Royal Netherlands Navy frigates are interchangeable with destroyers as there is no separate class
Type ship Defensenote 1974 Defensenote 1984 Priority Document 1993 Navy study 2005 Economize 2011 Defensenote 2018
LC frigates 4 4 4
M frigates 4 [12] 8 [13] 8 2 2 2
GW frigates 2 2 2
L frigates 1 [14] 2 2
S frigates 12 10 6
MLM frigates[15] 6
Frigates 25 22 18 6 6 6
Patrol ships 4 4 4
Submarine 6 6 4 4 4 4
Supply ships 2 2 2 1 1
LPD 1 2 2 2
JSS 1 1 1
Minehunters 15 15 15 10 6 6
Minesweepers 11 11 [16]
Total ships 59 56 40 28 23 24
LRMP Aircraft 21 13 [17] 13
Helicopters 36 [18] 30 [19] 20 20 20 20
Total aircraft 57 43 33 20 20 20

* The Royal Netherlands Navy classifies the De Zeven Provinciën-class as frigates, but internationally they are most comparable to destroyers (due to their size and weapon capability) platform for Sea Based Anti-Ballistic Missile defence

Naval aviation – maritime helicopters

Royal Netherlands Navy NH-90 NFH at De Kooy Naval Air Station
  • 19 NH90, 11 NATO Frigate Helicopter (NFH) and eight transport version of the NATO Frigate Helicopter (TNFH) for Marine Corps Air Lift Helicopter Squadron.[20] One NFH was lost on 19 July 2020 as result of a crash in the Caribbean Sea near the island of Aruba, killing two of the four crew on board.

In 2012 an Apache attack helicopter from the Royal Netherlands Air Force made a deck landing on board HNLMS Rotterdam for the first time as part of an initial study into the possibilities for wider use of the helicopters as these will be upgraded to the AH-64E standard which has specific features for maritime operations.

The Dutch amphibious support ship HNLMS Johan de Witt and the HNLMS Karel Doorman JSS are designed to handle Royal Netherlands Air Force CH-47F Chinook helicopters but still require additional anti corrosion measures (part of the ongoing upgrade of the CH-47F).

Autonomous underwater vehicles


Name Origin Type Number Photo Notes
Defenture VECTOR  Netherlands Multipurpose wheeled vehicle 75
Used by Netherlands Maritime Special Operations Forces.[22]
Bv 206S  Sweden Armoured personnel carrier 96 156 originally purchased. 96 vehicles have been given a mid-life update, the rest of the vehicles have been cannibalised, sold or disposed of.
BvS10  Sweden Armoured personnel carrier 74 74 vehicles in use. 46 personnel carriers, 20 command vehicles, 4 recovery vehicles and 4 ambulances. The Vikings are part of the Armoured All Terrain Vehicle (AATV) Troops.
Bushmaster  Australia Infantry mobility vehicle 20
Dutch Bushmaster with remote turret 2008.jpg
Part of joint pool for foreign deployments.
Leopard 1 BARV  Germany
Beach armoured recovery vehicle 4 BARV1.JPG Recovery vehicle built on a Leopard 1 tank.
Land Rover Defender 110XD  United Kingdom Off-road vehicle 140 Non-armoured vehicle, to be replaced by new armoured vehicles in 2023.
DMV Anaconda 4x4  Italy
Off-road vehicle 60
DMV Anaconda 4x4 test-8.jpg
Non-armoured vehicle based on a Iveco Daily chassis, modified by Dutch Military Vehicles (DMV) for use by marines. 46 vehicles in use in the Dutch Caribbean, 14 vehicles in use with the Anti-Armour Troop.
DAF YAM 4442  Netherlands Truck Unknown
DAF-YAM 4442-2.jpg
Phased replacement with new Scania trucks.
Scania R-series  Sweden Palletized Load System Unknown
Royal Dutch Army SCANIA truck with Petrol bowser container, pic1.JPG
Various versions in use.
Volkswagen Amarok  Germany Off-road vehicle 194
VW Dutch army Terreinopzichter pic2.JPG
Non-armoured vehicles, replacement of the Mercedes-Benz 290GD.


Name Type Caliber Notes
L16 Mortar 81mm
M6 C-640 Mortar 60mm mortar
Colt Canada C7NLD Assault rifle 5.56×45mm NATO
Colt Canada C8NLD Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO
Heckler & Koch HK416 Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO
Glock 17M Pistol 9×19mm Parabellum
FN MAG General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm
M2HB-QCB Heavy machine gun .50 BMG
Accuracy International AWM Sniper rifle .338 Lapua Magnum
Barrett M82A1 Anti-materiel rifle .50 BMG
FN P90 Personal defense weapon FN 5.7x28mm
Mossberg M590A1 Shotgun 12 gauge
Panzerfaust 3 Anti-tank weapon
GILL Anti-tank weapon

Current inventory

In 2019 the fleet of the Royal Netherlands Navy consists of these ships:

Class Photo Type Number Dates Details
Walrus class
Royal Netherlands Submarine - - 913392.jpg
Submarine 4 1994 Multi-purpose diesel-electric powered hunter-killer submarines for deep ocean, brown water & special forces operations. SLEP 2015–2019, will be replaced by 4 new subs from 2027 onwards.[23]
De Zeven Provinciën class HNLMS De Zeven Provinciën (F 802).jpg Frigate 4 2002 Mainly anti-air warfare with BMD capability, ASW and with extensive command & communication facilities.
Karel Doorman class Hr. Ms. Van Amstel (1993).jpg Frigate 1(1) 1994 8 initially built for the Royal Netherlands Navy, pairs of ships subsequently sold to the Belgian, Portuguese and Chilean navies. Belgian and Dutch M-Class frigates recently received extensive upgrades such as an extended helicopter deck and new advanced sensors and improvements in stealthiness. Will be replaced in 2028–29. Hr. Ms. Van Speijk will be suspended from active duty, and will be placed in reserve because of structural personnel shortage.
Holland class Offshore patrol vessel 4 2011 Ocean patrols
Alkmaar class Hr. Ms. Maassluis.jpg Minehunter 5 1989 Initial class of 15 ships, will be replaced starting 2027
Karel Doorman class
JSS Karel Doorman in Den Helder.jpg
Joint logistic support ship 1 2014 Combined amphibious operations/seabased helicopter platform & fleet replenishing, capable of supporting CH-47/AH-64/NH-90 operations
Rotterdam class
HNLMS Johan de Witt (L801).jpg
Landing platform dock 1(1) 1998/2007 Troop & equipment transport, helicopter platform with command & communication & hospital facilities. HNLMS Johan de Witt will be suspended from active duty, and will be placed in reserve/maintenance because of structural personnel shortage by summer 2021.
Cerberus class
Diving support vessel 4 1992 Multi-purpose diving support vessels & harbour protection
Soemba class
Diving support vessel 1 1989 Multi-purpose diving support vessels & harbour protection
Pelikaan class Multi-purpose logistic support vessel 1 2006 Multi-purpose logistic & amphibious support vessel based in Dutch Caribbean
Mercuur class
A900 ZrMs Mercuur.jpg
Submarine support vessel 1 1987 Submarine support vessel & MCM command, upgraded in 2017
Snellius class Hydrographic survey vessel 2 2004 Multi-purpose hydrographic survey vessel

The total tonnage will be approx. 140,000 tonnes. Next to these ships a lot of other smaller vessels remain in the navy.

With these changes the Royal Netherlands Navy will have 10 large oceangoing vessels ranging from medium/low to high combat action ships. The renewed Dutch Navy will be a green-water navy, having enough frigates and auxiliaries to operate far out at sea, while depending on land-based air support, and, with the large amphibious squadron, they will have significant brown-water navy capabilities.

Future changes

In January 2020 women were allowed to join submarine crews in the Royal Netherlands Navy for the first time.[24]

In April 2018, the Dutch Government approved a multi-year investment program and allocated funds for the 2018–2030 period, including;

  • The Walrus-class submarines replacement with all new boats planned for service entry between 2027 and 2031. The subs are currently undergoing a Service-life Extension Program (SLEP), including new sonar, new optronic periscope and weapon upgrades for near shore operations. The Royal Dutch Navy is evaluating Saab/Damen (A-26), TKMS (Upgraded 212), Navantia S-80 and a Naval Group (SSK version of Barracuda) proposal. In 2019 the S-80 option was dropped with plans to place an order for the winning design in 2022.[25][23]
  • Upgrading the De Zeven Provinciën-class LCF frigates Theatre Ballistic Missile Defense, acquisition of SM-3 missiles, a new OtoMelara 127/64 LW canon, ESSM-2 and SLCM integration 2018–2021 with a planned replacement from 2028 onwards.
  • Replacement of the Karel Doorman-class M frigates in the 2028/29 period by 2 ships[26](plus another 2 for the Belgian Navy), designed & built by Damen Shipyards.[27] See Future Surface Combatant for more information.
  • Replacement of the 6 Alkmaar-class MCM ships from 2024 including MCM Drones. 6 units will be built for both the Belgian and Dutch navies with a total of 12 ships.[27] The contract was won by Naval Group on 15 March 2019.[28][29]
  • Increasing the size of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps to remain highly integrated with the British Royal Marines. In 2017 the Ministry of Defence announced the formation of a Fleet Marine Squadron for the protection of merchant ships.
  • The German Navy Seebatallion (Marines) will be integrated into the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps.
  • Cooperation with the German Navy regarding Submarine & Amphibious Operations.
  • Acquisition of a new Combat Support Ship to replace the former Zr.Ms. Amsterdam, designed & build by Damen Shipyards.[30] This ship will be based on the JSS Karel Doorman design to improve type commonality (architecture & components) and is expected to be delivered in 2024.[31] The ship will be named Zr.Ms. Den Helder after the city of Den Helder, with the pennant A834. First steel for the ship was cut in December 2020.[32]
  • Replacement of Zr.Ms. Mercuur, Zr.Ms. Pelikaan, the four diving support vessels, the diving training vessel Zr.MS. Soemba, the hydographic vessels Zr.Ms. Snellius en Zr.Ms. Luymes and the training vessel Van Kinsbergen from 2024 onwards.
  • Acquisition of new LCU's in 2025 with additional capacity to support amphibious operations and the integration of the German Navy Marines (Seebatallion).
  • Main Naval Ship Based Weapons will be replaced by acquiring ESSM-2, new 127mm canons, Harpoon ASuW replacement, SM-3, SM-2 IIIC SAM, Goalkeeper CIWS replacement, MK 46 & MK 48 Torpedo replacement and SLCM (study).

Theater ballistic missile defense

Together with the United States and several other NATO members, the Dutch Navy is testing and updating its ships for Tactical ballistic missile defense capability. Although tests conducted concerning the capability of the APAR (Active Phased Array Radar) have been very successful, in 2018 the Dutch Government approved plans to acquire the SM-3 missiles for integration into the existing weapon suite of the LCF frigates. The four LCF ships will be fitted out with eight SM-3 missiles each (they are provisioned for this VLS extension) through Foreign Military Sales (under discussion between the US and The Netherlands).

Historic ships

Surviving historic ships

By period

Ranks and insignia


NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
 Royal Netherlands Navy[33]
Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg
Luitenant-Admiraal Vice-Admiraal Schout-bij-Nacht Commandeur Kapitein ter zee Kapitein-luitenant ter zee Luitenant ter zee der 1ste klasse Luitenant ter zee der 2de klasse oudste categorie Luitenant ter zee der 2de klasse Luitenant ter zee der 3de klasse Sergeant-Adelborst Korporaal-Adelborst Adelborst
Abbreviation (stnd) LAdm VAdm SBN Cdr KTZ KLTZ LTZ1 LTZ2OC LTZ2 LTZ3 Adb

Enlisted ranks

NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Royal Netherlands Navy[33]

Adjudant onderofficer/
Opperschipper (deckservice)
Schipper (deckservice)
Bootsman (deckservice)
Kwartiermeester (deckservice)
Marinier der 1e klasse
Marinier der 2e klasse
Marinier der 3e klasse

See also


  1. ^ "Aantallen personeel" . (in Dutch). 1 September 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  2. ^ "The Royal Netherlands Navy in Focus" . Government of the Netherlands. November 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine" . 13 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  4. ^ "List of Acronyms Preceding the Name of a Ship" . Corporation of Lower St. Lawrence Pilots. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Defensieschepen worden meteen Zr. Ms. in plaats van Hr. Ms" (in Dutch). Volkskrant. 29 January 2013.
  6. ^ "Geschiedenis marine" . Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  7. ^ Jaap R. Bruijn, "Dutch Navy " in Bruce, Anthony & Cogar, William (editors) An Encyclopedia of Naval History. Facts on File, New York. 1998; p. 121
  8. ^ Rodger, N. A. M. (2004) Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain 1649–1815. Penguin Books, London; pp. 9–10
  9. ^ "World Battlefronts: Dutchman's Chance" . Time. 23 February 1942. Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  10. ^ Klemen, L (1999–2000). "The War at Sea" . Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign, 1941–1942. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  11. ^ Dr. L. de Jong, Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog (Dutch), 14 parts, part 11a-I-second half, RIOD, Amsterdam, 1975
  12. ^ De M-fregatten werden voor het eerst genoemd bij de Memorie van Toelichting bij de defensiebegroting van 1977.
  13. ^ In de defensienota 1984 ging het om een groter type M-fregat dan in de MVT 1977 nog sprake was.
  14. ^ Het Aangepast Standaardfregat, zoals genoemd in de Defensienota van 1974 was een iets groter schip dan de uiteindelijk gebouwde L-fregatten
  15. ^ Gemoderniseerde Van Speijkklasse
  16. ^ Gepland was tevens de aanschaf van 2 oceaanmijnenvegers, maar een jaar later was dit plan al geschrapt. Gepland was voorts de vervanging van de Dokkumklasse mijnenvegers vanaf 1988, met een nader te bepalen aantal van minimaal 6 en maximaal 15 mijnenvegers.
  17. ^ Aanvankelijk werd de aanschaf van 2 extra Orion P-3 vliegtuigen overwogen, maar een jaar later waren deze plannen al geschrapt.
  18. ^ Er is later zelfs nog aan 40 helikopters gedacht.
  19. ^ Gepland was de aanschaf van 8 grote helikopters, als aanvulling op de 22 (2 waren al verloren gegaan) Lynx helikopters van de MLD.
  20. ^ "Royal Netherlands Navy Takes Delivery of a Mission Planning System for the NH90 NFH Fleet" . 29 November 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  21. ^ "RNLN Integrates SeeByte's Neptune into its AUVs" . Marine Technology News. 28 September 2018. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  22. ^ "Vector-terreinwagen (SOF)" . Ministerie van Defensie. 2 December 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  23. ^ a b Gain, Nathan (8 November 2019). "Another short delay for the Dutch Navy Walrus-class submarine replacement program" .
  24. ^ Gain, Nathan (22 January 2020). "Dutch female sailors now admitted for submarine service" . Naval News. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  25. ^ Kuper, Stephen (10 January 2020). "Dutch Navy confirms three corner fight for future sub program" .
  26. ^ "Dutch MoD clears path for the M-frigates replacement, expects delays" . 24 June 2020.
  27. ^ a b Marine krijgt nieuwe schepen , Dutch Ministry of Defence, 3 May 2018, archived from the original on 3 May 2018, retrieved 3 May 2018
  28. ^ "France's Naval Group clinches Belgian-Dutch minehunter replacement contract" . Naval Today. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  29. ^ Scott, Richard (15 March 2019). "Naval Group team selected for BE/NL MCM programme" . Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  30. ^ Karremann, Jaime. "Marine wil bevoorrader 'in de geest van Zr.Ms. Amsterdam'" . Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  31. ^ Karremann, Jaime. "Nieuw bevoorradingsschip komt in 2022" . Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  32. ^ "First steel cuts of Combat Support Ship CSS den Helder for Dutch Navy Netherlands" .
  33. ^ a b "De rangonderscheidingstekens van de krijgsmacht" (PDF) (in Dutch). Ministry of Defence (Netherlands). 19 December 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2021.


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