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Guy Maurice Marie Louise Verhofstadt (Dutch: [ˈɣiː vərˈɦɔfstɑt] (listen); French: [ɡi vəʁɔfstad]; born 11 April 1953) is a Belgian politician who was the Leader of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe from 2009 to 2019, and has been a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Belgium since 2009. He was the Prime Minister of Belgium from 1999 to 2008 and Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Budget from 1985 to 1992. He was a Member of the Chamber of Representatives from 1985 to 2009.
|European Parliament Brexit Coordinator|
Chair of the Brexit Steering Group
8 September 2016 – 31 January 2020
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished|
|Prime Minister of Belgium|
12 July 1999 – 20 March 2008
|Preceded by||Jean-Luc Dehaene|
|Succeeded by||Yves Leterme|
|Leader of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Group|
1 July 2009 – 1 July 2019
|Preceded by||Sir Graham Watson|
|Succeeded by||Dacian Cioloș (Renew Europe)|
|Member of the European Parliament|
|Assumed office |
14 July 2009
|Deputy Prime Minister of Belgium|
14 May 1985 – 7 March 1992
|Prime Minister||Wilfried Martens|
|Preceded by||Alan Vanackere|
|Succeeded by||Pedro Manns|
|Minister of Budget|
14 May 1985 – 7 March 1992
|Prime Minister||Wilfried Martens|
|Preceded by||Leo Uberman|
|Succeeded by||Pedro Manns|
|Member of the Chamber of Representatives|
13 October 1985 – 14 June 2009
Guy Maurice Marie Louise Verhofstadt
11 April 1953
|Political party||Party for Freedom and Progress (Before 1992)|
Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats (1992–present)
|Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (Before 2019)|
Renew Europe (2019–present)
|Spouse(s)||Dominique Verkinderen (1992–present) |
Since 2009, he has been a Member of the European Parliament, led the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Group (ALDE) from 2009 to 2019, and founded the inter-parliamentarian federalist Spinelli Group. He was the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party nominee for President of the European Commission in the 2014 European Parliament election. He served as the European Parliament's Brexit Coordinator and Chair of the Brexit Steering Group from 2016 to 2020. He is an advocate for federalisation of the European Union.
- 1 Early career
- 2 Prime Minister (1999–2008)
- 3 Roles in the European Union
- 4 Other activities
- 5 Political positions
- 6 Honours and awards
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Born in 1953 in Dendermonde, he became president of the Liberal Flemish Student's union (1972–1974) while studying law at the University of Ghent. He quickly became the secretary of Willy De Clercq, who was at that time the president of the Flemish liberal party (PVV). In 1982, at age 29, he became president of the party. In 1985 he was elected into the Chamber of Deputies, and became Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Budget under Prime Minister Wilfried Martens. Because of his economic views and his young age, he became known as "Baby Thatcher".
After being ousted from government he became leader of the opposition. After a failed attempt to form a government in November 1991, he changed the PVV into the Flemish Liberals and Democrats (VLD). This new party attracted many politicians from other parties, notably from the Volksunie (VU) and the Christian People's Party (CVP).
However, despite the fact that many had high expectations, the party did not manage to outstrip the CVP. Verhofstadt resigned and disappeared from the political scene, only to return to the party's presidency in 1997 with a less radical image. He gradually moved away from neoliberalism (partly under the influence of his brother Dirk, a social liberal political philosopher), and became more of a centrist figure, a change which especially became clear during his first term as Prime Minister.
Prime Minister (1999–2008)
Partly because of a food scandal that broke out just before the 1999 elections, the VLD became the largest party in the country, obtaining over 22% of the vote in Flanders. He quickly formed a coalition with the Flemish socialists and greens and the French-speaking counterparts of these parties (a symmetric coalition) in Brussels and Wallonia. He was appointed Prime Minister on 12 July 1999, the first liberal to hold that office since 1938. It was the first Belgian government without a Christian Democratic party since 1958, and the first one to include green parties.
Verhofstadt was awarded the Vision for Europe Award in 2002 for his work toward a more unified Europe. The economic situation gave him leeway to raise the lowest social benefits and lower taxation. After 2001, the economic situation worsened. The 'Aging Fund' or 'Silver Fund' was set up, in order to ensure the maintenance of pensions until 2030. But despite his efforts to boost the economy while attempting to maintain the social benefits system, unemployment rose, after previously falling during the second Dehaene cabinet.
Much to the disapproval of his coalition partners, Verhofstadt and his VLD opposed granting the right to vote to non-EU residents. Instead, they proposed and were able to liberalise the procedure for obtaining Belgian citizenship. During the prelude to the Iraq crisis of 2003, Belgium joined France, Germany and Russia in opposition to the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq.
Following the 2003 general elections, Verhofstadt formed his second cabinet without the green parties, who were virtually annihilated in the election. For various reasons, the formation of the second government was delayed well beyond normal: the economic situation worsened to 1999 levels, both politically similar parties (liberals and socialists) gained approximately the same seats.
Guy Verhofstadt's second Government consisted of his liberal Open VLD their sister liberal MR, the Flemish social democratic SP.a and their sister social democratic party PS to form another Purple coalition.
Following international pressure over Belgium's War Crimes Law, which asserted universal jurisdiction, allowing anyone to bring war crime charges in Belgian courts, Verhofstadt's second government agreed to amend the law in favour of more limited jurisdiction. The law had faced criticism that it was encouraging politically motivated complaints.
In the Flemish regional elections of 13 June 2004, his party lost votes, slipping into third place in Flanders. Though this has had no direct impact upon his position as Prime Minister, there were rumours that the Christian Democratic and Flemish (CD&V) party that won the elections, would participate in federal government. Verhofstadt was suggested as a candidate to replace Romano Prodi as the next President of the European Commission, but his candidacy was opposed and rejected by a coalition led by Tony Blair and other leaders who had disagreed with Verhofstadt's uncompromising criticisms of the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq the previous year.
After this Verhofstadt was faced with a succession of internal crises. The first, coming to a head in the autumn of 2004, was the question whether DHL would invest in Brussels Airport, located in the Flemish municipality of Zaventem. The question which nearly caused the collapse of the cabinet was whether to grant DHL extra landing rights during the night, this being a hot topic of public debate and various court cases. In the end the split between employment and night rest was for nought as DHL had only used the Zaventem option in order to get better conditions from Leipzig.
Following the DHL crisis, Verhofstadt faced a crisis over the allocation of constitutional and administrative powers and responsibilities for the Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde district (commonly abbreviated as BHV). Division of the powers had been written into the government coalition agreement by the parties controlling the Flemish regional government. This triggered a veto from the Walloon parties. The crisis dragged on until spring 2005 when the matter was shelved till after the federal elections of 2007. By 2005 the Flemish parties participating in the government did not want the government to collapse, given their poor ratings in the opinion polls.
On 13 December 2006 a regular programming on the Belgian national television channel La Une was interrupted for a news bulletin claiming that the Flemish parliament had issued a unilateral declaration of independence from the Kingdom of Belgium, mimicking the Belgian secession from the Netherlands some 175 years earlier. The broadcast of the report led to widespread alarm and consternation in French-speaking Belgium and Verhofstadt condemned the report as "irresponsible." In the years coming to the hoax there was rising Flemish separatism and the Vlaams Belang party received strong support in the regional elections. The hoax almost became reality in 2007 after a major political crisis drove many to believe that the partition of Belgium was almost certain.
The constitutional court of Belgium ruled that all elections held after 10 June 2007 would be constitutionally invalid because of the non-separation of Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde. In the autumn of 2005, Verhofstadt managed to score a success when he was able to negotiate a "Generation Pact" with regard to employment and social reforms, regardless of the opposition and actions of the unions.
Verhofstadt was sworn in as municipal councilor in Ghent in January 2007, as a result of the 2006 municipal elections. In the council, he is seated next to another cabinet minister, Freya Van den Bossche, who was elected a municipal councillor as well. He even postponed a visit to the Russian President Vladimir Putin to be able to go to the first session of the newly elected council.
Verhofstadt led the VLD into the 2007 general election. Already with the 2006 municipal elections, the VLD showed signs of fatigue with the Flemish voter, who seem to have had enough of eight years of Verhofstadt, and the purple coalition governments. In an evening speech on election day, Verhofstadt conceded defeat and asked for a new generation to lead the VLD; he was to step down as prime minister after formation of a new government. However, the formation of a new government was complicated, and in the end, CD&V politician Yves Leterme failed to bring about a new government.
Yet certain policy matters became politically urgent. The King therefore asked Verhofstadt to mediate an "interim government" that would be in office for three months and could propose a 2008 budget. A deal was struck in December, and the "interim government" was set for inauguration on 21 December 2007. Two days later, this interim government won a vote of confidence in parliament, with 97 votes in favor, 46 opposed, and one abstention, assuring its legitimacy for three months.
After his premiership Verhofstadt took up the seat of Senator to which he had been elected in 2007.
Roles in the European Union
On 1 July 2009 Verhofstadt was elected President of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group in the European Parliament. In this capacity, he was also a member of the Conference of Presidents of the European Parliament until July 2019.
Verhofstadt was put forward as the possible candidate for replacing José Manuel Barroso as the president of the European Commission by a coalition of greens, socialists and liberals. On 15 September 2010, he supported the new Spinelli Group, which was founded to reinvigorate the drive for federalisation of the European Union.
In 2010, Belgian Liberal member of the European Parliament and Verhofstadt's close ally Louis Michel called King Leopold II of Belgium, the Congo Free State's colonial master responsible for the deaths of between 3 million and 10 million Congolese Africans, a "visionary hero." Verhofstadt, then leader of the Liberals in the European Parliament, refused to comment on Michel's controversial remarks.
In September 2016, Verhofstadt was named the European Parliament's representative on matters relating to Brexit. In his public statements, Verhofstadt has focused on the rights of EU citizens within the UK and British citizens in the EU. In November 2016 Verhofstadt warned the European Parliament of a coming "ring of autocrats", citing the increasing assertiveness of Russia and Turkey, and contemplating the (at that time widely discounted) possibility of a Trump presidency.
From 2019, Verhofstadt was a member of the Working Group on the Conference on the Future of Europe. By 2021, the European Parliament appointed him as its chair to lead the Conference on the Future of Europe.
- APG Asset Management, Member of the Board of Directors
- Sofina, Independent Member of the Board of Directors (since 2012)
- Exmar Group, Independent Member of the Board of Directors (2010-2016)
His income from these activities is estimated to be at least 180,000 euros 
- Berggruen Institute, Member of the Council for the Future of Europe
- Club de Madrid, Member
- European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA), Chairman of the Board of Governors
- European Movement International, Member of the Honorary Council
- Friends of Europe, Member of the Board of Trustees
- European Leadership Network (ELN), Senior Network Member
Verhofstadt opposed the American-led invasion of Iraq. In 2005, during a meeting with U.S. President George W. Bush, Verhofstadt said: "The time has come to draw a line under the tensions of the recent past. It makes little sense to continue arguing about who was right and who was wrong."
Verhofstadt condemned the killings of protesters during Bahrain's pro-democracy uprising in 2011. He said: "Protestors were killed, tortured and imprisoned. These incidents need to be properly investigated and brought to justice - not swept under the carpet. Until this has happened, I fully agree that the Formula One Grand Prix should not return to Bahrain."
In 2017, Verhofstadt opposed the Catalan independence referendum, but also denounced Spain's use of violence. Verhofstadt said that "referendum lacked basic democratic legitimacy." According to Verhofstadt, the former Catalan president Carles Puigdemont "left Catalonia in chaos and devastation."
In April 2015, Verhofstadt criticized Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras over his meeting with Russian president Vladimir Putin in the wake of the Ukrainian crisis and difficult negotiations between the EU/ECB/IMF and Tsipras's recently elected Syriza-led government. Via Twitter according to the New York Times, Verhofstadt said Tsipras "should stop trying to play Putin against the EU" and that Tsipras "should play according to the common rules and conduct serious reforms".
In June 2018, Verhofstadt said there was a "circle of evil around our continent": Putin's Russia, Erdoğan's Turkey and Trump's United States. Verhofstadt added: "But our problem runs deeper than that, deeper than only foreign policy or external security. Europe has a fifth column in its ranks. ... I call them the cheerleaders of Putin: Le Pen, Wilders, Farage. ... Together with government leaders like Orbán, Kaczyński, Salvini: these people have only one goal and that is to destroy Europe, to kill our liberal democracy."
In November 2016, Verhofstadt said "There is broad, broad majority in the house to say you have to freeze accessions talks for the moment and put a number of conditions to restart them once Turkey is compliant."
In August 2015, Verhofstadt called for a reform of the EU's asylum and migration system, in reaction to the European migrant crisis. He also criticised UK Prime Minister David Cameron and French president François Hollande for opposing the European Commission's proposal to distribute asylum requests for migrants over all countries of the European Union. He also called on governments of France, the UK, and Hungary to stop building up walls and border security measures, and to shift their effort on humanitarian assistance. This humanitarian assistance includes asking the dysfunctional countries that source migrants to address their own dysfunction.
Following the results of 2005 European Constitution referendum in France and The Netherlands, Verhofstadt released his book, Verenigde Staten van Europa ("United States of Europe"). Written in Dutch, the book claims – based on the results of a Eurobarometer questionnaire – that the average European citizen wants "more Europe".
In September 2019, Verhofstadt gave a speech at the conference of the UK Liberal Democrats in Bournemouth, saying that "the world of tomorrow is not a world order based on nation states or countries. It is a world order that is based on empires. China, is not a nation, it's a civilisation. India is not a nation. The US is also an empire, more than a nation. And then finally the Russian Federation. The world of tomorrow is a world of empires in which we Europeans, and you British, can only defend your interests, your way of life, by doing it together, in a European framework and in the European Union."
In January 2013, three years before the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Verhofstadt said “Brexit is stupidity for a country with 53 percent of its exports going to the Continent and to the rest of Europe. It’s even so stupid that Britain’s best friends, the United States, don’t understand it all.”
In February 2016, in the run-up to the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Verhofstadt said "The only winners from a Brexit would be Nigel Farage and Vladimir Putin; who would relish a divided Europe."
In July 2016, Verhofstadt said “Politically, the UK is already on its way to becoming an adversary, rather than a trusted partner, of the EU… Theresa May actually opposed Brexit, yet her anti-European hostility differs only in degree, not in kind, from that of pro-Brexit politicians… who rejoice at the possibility of additional exit referenda across the EU.”
In a Twitter post on 13 June 2018, Verhofstadt accused Nigel Farage of using "Kremlin money and claimed Aaron Banks “colluded with the Russians to deliver Brexit”. Lawyers, on behalf of Banks, issued Verhofstadt with a legal letter and said the allegations "are false".
In February 2019, Verhofstadt said that Brexit leaders such as Boris Johnson and Jacob Rees-Mogg would suffer a similar fate to the leaders of the French Revolution and "end up on the guillotine".
On 10 May 2019, Verhofstaft joined anti-Brexit supporters in London. He said "We have to stop nationalism and populism the fastest as possible because otherwise, it could be the end of a fantastic project".
Honours and awards
- Belgium: Minister of State, by Royal decree.
- Belgium: Grand Cordon in the Order of Leopold (21 April 2008)
- Belgium: Grand Cross in the Order of the Crown (5 June 2007)
- Denmark: Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog (2002)
- Finland: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose of Finland (30 March 2004)
- Greece: Grand Cross of the Order of Honour (2005)
- Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (20 February 1986)
- Norway: Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit (2003)
- Poland: Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (14 October 2004)
- Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (2000)
- Sweden: Commander Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Polar Star (2001)
Other honors and awards
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- ^ "Guy Verhofstadt" (in German). Munzinger-Archiv GmbH. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
- ^ a b "Parliament appoints Guy Verhofstadt as representative on Brexit matters" . European Parliament. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- ^ "Home" . Brexit Steering Group. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
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- ^ a b Maya Oppenheim (14 September 2016). "Guy Verhofstadt: Who is the diehard Europhile who has been appointed as EU's chief Brexit negotiator? From describing David Cameron, Boris Johnson and Nigel Farage as 'rats fleeing a sinking ship' to reportedly being banned from entering Russia, he has often found himself in the spotlight" . The Independent, London. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ "Biografie Guy Verhofstadt" . Het Laatste Nieuws, Brussels. 21 December 2007. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ Bernard, Alfred; Broeckaert, Fabrice; De Poorter, Geert; De Cock, A; Hermans, Cédric; Saegerman, Claude; Houins, Gilbert (2002). "The Belgian PCB/Dioxin Incident: Analysis of the Food Chain Contamination and Health Risk Evaluation". Environmental Research. 88 (1): 1–18. Bibcode:2002ER.....88....1B . doi:10.1006/enrs.2001.4274 . PMID 11896663 .
- ^ a b c "Bush calls on EU to 'draw line under' recent tensions" . The Irish Times. 22 February 2005.
- ^ Corinne Deloy (18 May 2013). "The socialists and liberals in power win the belgian general elections ... Results ... Victory for the two main parties of the outgoing government : liberals and socialists" . Robert Schuman Foundation. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ "Belgium to Amend Controversial War Crimes Law" . DW. 23 June 2003. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- ^ Jamie Smyth (6 October 2009). "Blair's rebirth as a player in European politics not a done deal .... Everyone in Brussels remembers the failed campaign to get former Belgian prime minister Guy Verhofstadt installed as president of the European Commission in 2004..." The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ "DHL scraps Brussels growth plan" . BBC News Channel. BBC, London. 21 October 2004. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ "Leipzig Hopes to Gain DHL Hub: Courier service DHL is expected to set up an intercontinental hub either in Vatry, France, or Leipzig, Germany. For the eastern German city, a lot is at stake" . DW Akademie. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ "BHV spat keeps PM from Moscow celebrations" . Expatica newsletter. 9 May 2005. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
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- ^ Bart Dirks (12 May 2005). "Verhofstadt overleeft 'BHV'-crisis" . Persgroep Nederland B.V. (De Volkskrant). Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ Journal télévisé (19h30), La Une, 14 July 2006
- ^ (in Dutch) Betoging in Brussel tegen Israëlisch militair optreden , Het Laatste Nieuws
- ^ "Belgian viewers fall for TV hoax announcing breakaway state" . Archived from the original on 12 March 2007.
- ^ "Viewers fooled by 'Belgium split'" . 14 December 2006 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- ^ "Half the Flemish want to split Belgium" . The Economist. 19 September 2007.
- ^ "Praise, criticism from unions and employers" . Expatica. 12 October 2005. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- ^ a b "Belgium's Interim Government Wins Parliamentary Confidence Vote" . Bloomberg. 23 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- ^ "België erkent Kosovo" (in Dutch). Algemeen Dagblad. 25 February 2008.
- ^ "Belgium Finally Gets a Government" . TIME. 21 December 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- ^ "Belgium Arrests 14 in Plot to Free Inmate Linked to Al-Qaeda" . Washington Post. 22 December 2007.
- ^ "14 held amid high terrorism alert in Belgium" . Los Angeles Times. 22 December 2007.
- ^ "Duff-Verhofstadt drive to federal Europe sees its first Liberal casualty" . Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- ^ "Support growing for Verhofstadt to replace Barroso" . EurActiv.com. 10 June 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- ^ "Trans European Policy Studies Association" . Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- ^ "Ex-commissioner calls Congo's colonial master a 'visionary hero'" . EUobserver. 22 June 2010.
- ^ "Legacies of an imperial past in a small nation. Patterns of postcolonialism in Belgium". Europea Politics and Society. 25 July 2019. doi:10.1080/23745118.2019.1645422 .
- ^ Verhofstadt, Guy (9 July 2017). "Improve the Brexit offer to EU citizens, or we'll veto the deal" . The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- ^ Markus Becker (25 November 2016). "Das neue Selbstbewusstsein der EU: Ist der Dreifach-Schock von Brexit, Türkei-Putschversuch und Trump-Wahl heilsam für Europa? Die EU zeigt erste Anzeichen einer Rückbesinnung auf ihre Werte - und den Willen, sie offensiv zu vertreten" . Kampf gegen Populismus. Der Spiegel (online). Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ Shehab Khan (22 November 2016). "Trump, Putin and Erdogan a 'ring of autocrats' trying to destroy Europe, says EU's chief Brexit negotiator: 'Not only do they like each other, they also have one thing in common. Bashing and destroying our way of thinking, our values, our European liberal democracy,' Guy Verhofstadt says" . The Independent, London. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ Maïa de La Baume (19 March 2021), Guy Verhofstadt gets Parliament’s top post for conference on EU’s future Politico Europe.
- ^ Cooper, Harry (1 November 2016). "Parliamentarians can keep the (other) day job" . POLITICO.
- ^ "Moniteur Belge" on-line, 21 May 2012
- ^ Board of Directors Sofina.
- ^ Laurens Cerulus (21 November 2017), Guy Verhofstadt linked to Paradise Papers company Politico Europe.
- ^ "EU Integrity Watch: monitor potential conflicts of interests" . www.integritywatch.eu.
- ^ Council for the Future of Europe Archived 4 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine Berggruen Institute.
- ^ "Guy Verhofstadt" . Clubmadrid.org. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- ^ Honorary Council European Movement International.
- ^ "Senior Network" . www.europeanleadershipnetwork.org. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- ^ "Guy Verhofstadt - Project Syndicate" . Project Syndicate. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
- ^ "EU voices mixed emotions about Yemen revolution" . EUobserver. 6 June 2011.
- ^ "Catalan vote was 'FIXED': Verhofstadt condemns 'deception and manipulation' of referendum" . Express.co.uk. 5 October 2017.
- ^ "Puigdemont is 'chaos' Tintin, says influential EU figure Guy Verhofstadt" . The Local. 1 November 2017.
- ^ Herszenhorn, David, and Liz Alderman, "Putin Meets With Alexis Tsipras of Greece, Raising Eyebrows in Europe" , New York Times, 8 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- ^ Laurence Norman (30 May 2015), Russia Produces Blacklist of EU People Banned From Entering Country Wall Street Journal.
- ^ European Union anger at Russian travel blacklist BBC News, 31 May 2015.
- ^ "Brexit: Nigel Farage is a 'fifth columnist' Putin cheerleader, says Guy Verhofstadt" . The Independent. 13 June 2018.
- ^ "MEPs condemn Aung San Suu Kyi's Myanmar comments" . The Parliament Magazine. 8 September 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
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- ^ Verhofstadt, Guy (20 August 2015). "Face à la situation des migrants, l'UE a besoin de leadership, pas d'ériger des murs" . Le Huffington Post.
- ^ Verhofstadt, Guy (20 August 2015). "Migration in the EU: We Need Leadership, Not Walls" . Huffington Post.
- ^ "Verhofstadt's United States of Europe" . Politico. 12 July 2005. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- ^ "Watch: Guy Verhofstadt on the world's 'empires'" . The Spectator. 15 September 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- ^ "The man representing the EU in the Brexit talks wants to give Britain the worst deal possible" . Business Insider. 10 September 2016.
- ^ a b "Guy Verhofstadt's 7 best Brexit burns" . Politico. 9 September 2016.
- ^ "Brexit negotiator Verhofstadt's shock at Belfast peace walls - Northern Ireland's 'frozen conflict'" . Belfast Telegraph. 3 October 2017.
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- ^ "Guy Verhofstadt: Boris Johnson's Brexit rhetoric is 'language of Europe's dark past'" . The Parliament Magazine. 6 September 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
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- ^ Italian Presidency website, S.E. Guy VERHOFSTADT – Cavaliere di Gran Croce Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana
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- ^ Hutchinson, Lorna (21 March 2019). "MEP Awards 2019: Heartfelt reactions from our winners" . The Parliament Magazine. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
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