San Juan, Puerto Rico

San Juan (/ˌsæn ˈhwɑːn/, Spanish: [saŋ ˈxwan]; "Saint John") is the capital and most-populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it is the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, with a population of 395,326. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico ("Rich Port City"). Puerto Rico's capital is the third oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, founded in 1496, and Panama City, in Panama, founded in 1521,[5] and is the oldest European-established city in the U.S. proper or U.S. territories. Several historical buildings are located in San Juan; among the most notable are the city's former defensive forts, Fort San Felipe del Morro and Fort San Cristóbal, and La Fortaleza, the oldest executive mansion in continuous use in the Americas.

San Juan

Municipio Autónomo de San Juan
Municipality of San Juan
San Juan, Puerto Rico (2529298606).jpg
San Juan 2015.jpg
Condado Beach at night, view from the top of Castillo San Cristóbal
Coat of arms

"La Ciudad Amurallada"
Spanish for "The Walled City"
"Ciudad Capital"
Spanish for "Capital City"
Map of Puerto Rico highlighting San Juan Municipality
Location within North America
Coordinates: [1]
Commonwealth Puerto Rico
Named forJohn the Baptist
 • Mayor of San JuanMiguel Romero Lugo (PNP)
 • Municipality77.0 sq mi (199 km2)
 • Land47.9 sq mi (124 km2)
 • Water29.1 sq mi (75 km2)  37.8%
 • Urban
876.2 sq mi (2,269 km2)
Elevation26 ft (8 m)
 • Municipality395,326
 • Density8,253/sq mi (3,187/km2)
 • Urban
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC−4 (AST)
ZIP Codes
00901, 00907, 00909, 00911-00913, 00915, 00917, 00918, 00920, 00921, 00923-00927
Area code(s)787 and 939
Major routesPR primary 1.svg PR primary 2.svg PR primary 18.svg PR primary 20.svg PR primary 26.svg PR urban primary 3.svg PR urban primary 8.svg PR urban primary 16.svg PR urban primary 21.svg PR urban primary 23.svg PR urban primary 25.svg PR urban primary 25R.svg PR urban primary 27.svg PR urban primary 35.svg PR urban primary 176.svg PR urban primary 177.svg PR urban primary 181.svg PR urban primary 199.svg Ellipse sign 19.svg Ellipse sign 28.svg Ellipse sign 36.svg Ellipse sign 37.svg Ellipse sign 38.svg Ellipse sign 39.svg Ellipse sign 40.svg Ellipse sign 41.svg Ellipse sign 42.svg Ellipse sign 47.svg
Toll plate yellow.svg Toll plate yellow.svg Toll plate yellow.svg
PR primary 17.svg PR primary 22.svg PR primary 52.svg

Today, San Juan is Puerto Rico's most important seaport[6] and is the island's manufacturing,[citation needed] financial, cultural, and tourism center. The population of the Metropolitan Statistical Area, including San Juan and the municipalities of Bayamón, Guaynabo, Cataño, Canóvanas, Caguas, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Carolina and Trujillo Alto, is about 2.6 million inhabitants; thus, about 80% of the population of Puerto Rico now lives and works in this area.[7] San Juan is also a principal city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. The city has been the host of events within the sports community, including the 1979 Pan American Games; 1966 Central American and Caribbean Games; events of the 2006, 2009 and 2013 World Baseball Classics; the Caribbean Series and the Special Olympics and MLB San Juan Series in 2010.

The damage caused in 2017 by Hurricane Maria was extensive. Significant progress had been made in the capital by April 2019, and particularly by October 2019. This was significant for tourism, which had rebounded by October of that year and was close to the pre-Maria era.[8]



Ruins of Juan Ponce de León's residence at Caparra

In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the original settlement which he called Caparra. It was named after the Province of Cáceres in Spain, the birthplace of Nicolás de Ovando, then the Governor of Spain's Caribbean territories.[9] Today, it is part of the Pueblo Viejo sector of Guaynabo, just to the west of the present San Juan metropolitan area. A year later, the settlement was moved to a site then called Puerto Rico, Spanish for "rich port" or "good port", after its similar geographical features to the town of Puerto Rico of Gran Canaria in the Canary Islands.[10] In 1521, the newer settlement was given its formal name: Puerto Rico de San Juan Bautista.

The ambiguous use of San Juan Bautista and Puerto Rico for both the city and the island in time led to a reversal in practical use by most inhabitants: by 1746 the name for the city (Puerto Rico) had become that of the entire island, leading to the city being identified as Puerto Rico de Puerto Rico on maps of the era.[11][12][13]

San Juan and bay, Puerto Rico, 1766

San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant and military ships traveling from Spain as the first stopover in the Americas. Because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the New World to Europe. Because of the rich cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time.[14]

The city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 (in what is known as the Battle of Puerto Rico) and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, in 1598. Artillery from San Juan's fort, El Morro, repelled Drake; however, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city.[15] After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion and sickness. In 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico (also known as Boudewijn Hendricksz/Bowdoin Henrick), but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken. The Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amézqueta and 50 members of the civilian militia on land and by the cannons of the Spanish troops in El Morro Castle. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a sword wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amézqueta.[16][unreliable source?] The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans who defeated those aboard. After a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the city's militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion. On October 21, Enrico set La Fortaleza and the city ablaze. Captains Amézqueta and Andrés Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemy's front and rear guard. They drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships.[17]

The British attack in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, led by Sir Ralph Abercromby (who had just conquered Trinidad). His army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. Various events and circumstances, including liberalized commerce with Spain, the opening of the island to immigrants as a direct result of the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815, and the colonial revolutions, led to an expansion of San Juan and other Puerto Rican settlements in the late 18th and early 19th century.

La Plaza, San Juan, ca. 1900

On May 8, 1898, United States Navy ships, among them USS Detroit, USS Indiana, USS New York, USS Amphitrite, USS Terror and USS Montgomery, commanded by Rear Admiral William T. Sampson arrived at San Juan Bay.[18][19] USS Yale captured the Spanish freighter Rita in San Juan Bay, thus being the first hostile encounter between the warring sides in Puerto Rico. On May 9, Yale fought a brief battle with an auxiliary cruiser of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victory. Around this time, Captain Ángel Rivero Méndez was assigned the command of the Spanish forces in the fortress of San Cristóbal in San Juan. On May 10, Yale returned to San Juan Bay, Rivero-Méndez ordered his men to open fire upon Yale using an Ordoñez 15-centimeter cannon, thus becoming the first attack against the Americans in Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War.[20] For his actions, Captain Rivero-Méndez was awarded the "Cruz de la Orden de Mérito Militar" (The Cross of the Order of the Military Merit) first class.[20] The residents of San Juan were furious with Rivero and blamed him for the destruction caused to their city by the American bombardments. Nothing came of those accusations and Capt. Rivero-Méndez was ordered to turn over the keys of all the military installations in San Juan to Captain Henry A. Reed of the U.S. Army after the Treaty of Paris of 1898 was signed.[20] On July 25, General Nelson A. Miles landed at Guánica (in southwestern Puerto Rico) with 3,300 soldiers in what was known as the Puerto Rican Campaign. The American troops found some resistance and engaged the Spanish and Puerto Rican troops in battle, the most notable of these the battles of Yauco and Asomante. All military actions in Puerto Rico were suspended August 13, 1898, after President William McKinley and French Ambassador Jules Cambon, acting on behalf of the Spanish government, signed an armistice.[21][22] Spain ceded the island to the United States later the same year by signing the Treaty of Paris.

Camp Las Casas, located in the district of Santurce, served as the main training camp for the Puerto Rican soldiers prior to World War I and World War II; the majority of the men trained in this facility were assigned to the "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry" which was renamed the 65th Infantry Regiment of the United States Army by the Reorganization Act of June 4, 1920. The 65th Infantry was deactivated in 1956 and became the only unit ever to be transferred from an active Army component to the Puerto Rico National Guard.[23]

Shanty town along the Martín Peña Canal, 1973

Lieutenant Teófilo Marxuach (retired as a Lieutenant Colonel), a native of Arroyo, Puerto Rico, fired the first shot in what is considered to be the first shot of World War I fired by the regular armed forces of the United States against any ship flying the colors of the Central Powers.[24] Marxuach, who was a member of the "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry" and Officer of the Day, on March 25, 1915, opened fire on the Odenwald, an armed German supply vessel, when it was trying to force its way out of San Juan's bay.[25] The shots ordered by Lt. Marxuach were the first fired by the United States in World War I.[26]

In 1919, Félix Rigau Carrera, "El Aguila de Sabana Grande" (The Eagle from Sabana Grande), the first Puerto Rican pilot, became the first native Puerto Rican to fly an aircraft in the island when he flew his Curtiss JN-4 from Las Casas. At the time, the area was used by the military as an air base and it was also Puerto Rico's first commercial airport, and Rigau Carrera was allowed to perform his historic flight from the air field.[27] Camp Las Casas was eventually closed down, and in 1950 a public housing project by the name of Residencial Fray Bartolome de Las Casas was constructed on its former location.

On January 2, 1947, the people of San Juan elected Felisa Rincón de Gautier (also known as Doña Fela) (1897–1994) as their mayor. Thus, she became the first woman to be elected as the mayor of a capital city in any of The Americas.[28] During the Cold War era, she ordered the establishment of the island's first Civil Defense system under the directorship of Colonel Gilberto José Marxuach (Teófilo's son).[29] Rincón de Gautier served as mayor until January 2, 1969.

Historic coat of arms of San Juan (Spanish rule)

On October 30, 1950, San Juan was the scene of the San Juan Uprising, one of many uprisings which occurred in various towns and cities in Puerto Rico, by the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party against the governments of Puerto Rico and the United States. Among the uprising's main objective was to attack "La Fortaleza" (the Governors mansion) and the United States Federal Court House Building in Old San Juan. In accordance to the planned uprising in San Juan, a group of nationalists were supposed to attack simultaneously the gubernatorial mansion La Fortaleza, where Puerto Rican governor Luis Muñoz Marín resided, and the United States Federal Court House which is located close to an area called "La Marina" in Old San Juan. The La Fortaleza battle, which ensued between the nationalists and the police lasted 15 minutes, and ended when four of the five attackers were killed.[30]

Coat of arms and flag

The municipio has an official flag and coat of arms.[31]

On March 8, 1948 the city government of San Juan officially adopted as the city's first flag an orange field, in the center of which is the coat of arms of the city. The orange color was based and taken from Father Diego de Torres Vargas' text and it reads : "Escudo de armas dado a Puerto Rico por los Reyes Católicos en el año de 1511, siendo Procurador un vecino llamado Pedro Moreno. Son : un cordero blanco con su banderilla colorada, sobre un libro, y todo sobre una isla verde, que es la de Puerto Rico, y por los lados una F y una I, que quiere decir Fernando e Isabel, los Reyes Católicos que se las dieron, y hoy se conservan en el estandarte real, que es de damasco anaranjado, con que se ganó la ciudad" ("Coat of arms given to Puerto Rico by the Catholic Monarchs in the year 1511 being Procurator a vecino named Pedro Moreno. They are: a white lamb with a red flag, on top of a book, and everything above a green island, which is Puerto Rico...which is of orange damask, with which the city was won"). It appears that the color was changed from orange to white at some point.[32][33]


San Juan from space

San Juan is located along the north-eastern coast of Puerto Rico. It lies south of the Atlantic Ocean; north of Caguas and Trujillo Alto; east of Guaynabo; and west of Carolina. The city occupies an area of 76.93 square miles (199.2 km2), of which, 29.11 square miles (75.4 km2) (37.83%) is water. San Juan's main water bodies are San Juan Bay and two natural lagoons, the Condado and San José.[34]

Hurricane Maria

Department of Defense vehicles traveling through a major highway in San Juan flooded with the Hurricane Maria rainfall

Much of San Juan was flooded with Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017, which also triggered numerous landslides.[35][36]


San Juan has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) and has an average temperature of 81.0 °F (27.2 °C) although 90 °F (32 °C) or higher temperatures are seen on an average 79 days annually, more commonly occurring during the wetter months of the northern summer, especially if the winds come from the south. In the winter, temperatures can drop to around 60 °F (16 °C), though the average winter low is 71 °F (22 °C). The coolest temperature officially recorded was 60 °F (16 °C) on March 3, 1957, and the hottest was 98 °F (37 °C) on October 9, 1981;[37] the record cold daily maximum is 71 °F (22 °C) on February 4, 1935, while the record warm daily minimum is 83 °F (28 °C) on August 11, 1995, the most recent of four occasions.[38] With a mean minimum of 67 °F (19 C) send one is in USDA plant hardiness zone 13B the highest category. Rainfall is well-distributed throughout the year, but the months of January, February, and March are the driest; as March averages just 1.95 inches (49.5 mm) of rain, the city falls under the tropical monsoon category.[39] Rainfall averages 56.35 inches (1,431.3 mm), falling on an average 198.5 days per year;[38] despite this dampness, the city averages 2,970 hours of sunshine per year, or just over ⅔ of the possible total.[40] Annual rainfall has historically ranged from 35.53 in (902 mm) in 1991 to 89.50 in (2,273 mm) in 2010.[38]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 92
Mean maximum °F (°C) 87
Average high °F (°C) 83.2
Daily mean °F (°C) 77.6
Average low °F (°C) 71.9
Mean minimum °F (°C) 68
Record low °F (°C) 61
Average rainfall inches (mm) 4.07
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 18.4 15.3 13.1 14.3 16.5 15.1 19.0 19.8 18.3 17.7 20.6 20.2 208.3
Average relative humidity (%) 74.0 72.4 71.0 71.3 74.9 75.5 75.9 76.4 76.4 76.9 76.2 74.7 74.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 237.4 231.2 282.0 268.3 255.2 259.4 280.8 267.8 234.7 227.2 202.4 217.4 2,963.8
Percent possible sunshine 69 72 76 71 63 65 69 68 64 63 60 64 67
Average ultraviolet index 8 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 10 9 8 11
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[38][42][40]
Source 2: The Weather Channel[37], Weather Atlas (UV)[43]


General view of harbor at San Juan, Puerto Rico looking South to San Juan Bay, 1927. The clock tower building at center was the San Juan Rail Terminal.


The architecture of San Juan is very diverse, due to its size and all the cultural influences received during its existence. The oldest part of the city, known as Old San Juan, mostly features the influence of Spanish architecture. This part of the city is comprised by a network of "setted" roads usually surrounded by ancient, two-storied houses built on masonry. Some colonial structures have been restored and serve either as government offices or museums. Some examples are the Ballajá Barracks, which now serve as museum and headquarters of several cultural organizations; La Fortaleza, which has served as the residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico since the 16th Century; and the Ancient Welfare Asylum, which now houses the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture, among others. Old San Juan also features several public squares, like the Plaza de Armas, located in front of San Juan City Hall; and cathedrals, like the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista.[44] Old San Juan is also notable for being partly enclosed by massive walls and fortifications built by the Spanish government.

The architecture is more varied in other districts of the city. The district of Santurce features a lot of influence from art deco, while the districts of Hato Rey feature more modern structures.[citation needed]


Subdivisions of San Juan
San Juan and Rio Piedras as separate municipalities on map of 1915

What is now known as Old San Juan occupied the western end of a rocky islet, the Isleta de San Juan, at the mouth of San Juan Bay. During the 20th century, the main population centers surged well beyond the walls of the old city and onto Puerto Rico's main island, and merged with the existing settlements east and south of Old San Juan. With the annexation of Río Piedras in 1951, the municipality of San Juan grew four times its previous size. As a result, the municipality also went from 2 to 18 barrios (barrios),[45] 16 of which fall within the former municipality of Río Piedras. Eight of the 18 barrios are further subdivided into subbarrios, including the two barrios (San Juan Antiguo and Santurce) that belonged to the original municipality of San Juan. The 18 barrios are:

Old San Juan

Some streets in Old San Juan are still paved with blue cobblestones from the Spanish colonial era.

During the Spanish colonial times most of the urban population resided in what is now known as Old San Juan. This sector is located on the western half of a small island called the Isleta de San Juan, which is connected to the mainland by two bridges and a causeway. The small island, which comprises an area of 47 square miles (120 km2), also hosts the working-class neighborhood of Puerta de Tierra and most of Puerto Rico's central government buildings, including the Commonwealth's Capitol.[citation needed]

The main central part of the city is characterized by narrow streets made of blue cobblestone and picturesque colonial buildings, some of which date back to the 16th and 17th century. Sections of the old city are surrounded by massive walls and several defensive structures and notable forts. These include the 16th-century Fort San Felipe del Morro and the 17th-century Fort San Cristóbal, both part of San Juan National Historic Site, and the 16th-century El Palacio de Santa Catalina, also known as La Fortaleza, which serves as the governor's mansion.[46] Other buildings of interest predating the 20th century are the Ayuntamiento or Alcaldía (City Hall), the Diputación Provincial and the Real Intendencia buildings, which house the Puerto Rico Department of State,[47] the Casa Rosa, the San José Church (1523) and the adjacent Hotel El Convento, the former house of the Ponce de León family known as Casa Blanca, the Teatro Tapia, the former Spanish barracks (now Museum of Ballajá), La Princesa (former municipal jail, now headquartering the Puerto Rico Tourism Company), and the Santa María Magdalena de Pazzis Cemetery, located just outside the city walls.[48][49][50] The Cathedral of San Juan Bautista (construction began in the 1520s) is also located in Old San Juan, and contains the tomb of the Spanish explorer and settlement founder Juan Ponce de León.[51] Old San Juan, also known as the "old city", is the main cultural tourist attraction in Puerto Rico; its bayside is lined by dock slips for large cruise ships.

Other districts

East of Old San Juan lies the wealthy tourist-oriented neighborhood of Condado, which occupies land that used to be owned by entrepreneur Pablo Ubarri Capetillo, a Spanish railroad developer and Count of San José de Santurce under the Spanish colonial period. Beaches such as nearby Ocean Park, popular with swimmers, surfers and kitesurfers, are found all along the district's Atlantic coastline which is also the locus of numerous hotels.[52]

A street in Old San Juan

Near Condado are two separate business districts, Santurce and Miramar. Miramar is mainly a residential area rising south of the Condado Lagoon. It comprises the former barrio of Miraflores, as well as drained marshland and landfill over which was built San Juan's first airport, the Isla Grande airport, which was renamed Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport in honor of Major Fernando Luis Ribas-Dominicci (USAF). Miramar now hosts the Puerto Rico Convention Center as well as some of San Juan Harbor's cruise ship piers. In 2005 Miramar was designated an historical district of Puerto Rico.[53]

Santurce, originally named San Mateo de Cangrejos (Saint Matthew of the Crabs), was a settlement for freed African slaves during the early days of the city. After Pablo Ubarri sought permission to link San Juan with Río Piedras proper via steam tramway in 1878, the time it took to travel between both points were shortened and thereby stimulated the colonization and growth of the district. At the beginning of the twentieth century an electric trolley was installed, the township was split into three parts, and its main settlement, merged with the city, was renamed using the Spanish spelling of Santurtzi (Saint George in Basque), Ubarri's birthplace in Vizcaya, Spain. The "Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico" (Puerto Rico Museum of Art)[54] and other important cultural venues are located in Santurce.

South of Santurce is Hato Rey, part of the former municipality of Río Piedras. Hato Rey was grazing ground for cattle owned by the royal government (hence its name, the King's Herd in Spanish) as early as the 16th century,[55] and is now considered the financial center of the island. A section of this district is often referred to as Milla de Oro (actually 0.47 miles or 0.76 kilometers long) due in part to the many banks and businesses located there.[55]

In the southern part of the city is the socially diversified community of Río Piedras. Founded in the mid-1850s, Río Piedras was a separate town which hosted sugar cane plantations and the estates of some of San Juan's wealthiest inhabitants (as well as their working class staff). The Spanish colonial governors also had their summer home there on land which eventually gave way to the main campus of the University of Puerto Rico. In 1951 the municipalities of San Juan and Río Piedras were merged to redefine San Juan's current city limits. Today Río Piedras comprises the largest area of the municipality of San Juan.[56] and is home to the "Plaza del Mercado" (Río Piedras Marketplace), the main campus and the Medical Sciences campus of the University of Puerto Rico and the San Juan Botanical Garden.


Race – San Juan, Puerto Rico – 2010 Census[57]
Race Population % of Total
White 268,708 68.0%
Black/African American 73,538 18.4%
American Indian and Alaska Native 3,071 0.8%
Asian 1,750 0.4%
Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islander 36 0.0%
Some other race 32,386 8.2%
Two or more races 15,835 4.0%

San Juan is the largest city in Puerto Rico by population.[58] From 1899 to 1950 the municipality of San Juan excluded the township of Río Piedras. For this reason, population data and land area for the period make reference only to the Antiguo San Juan and Santurce barrios, or subdivisions, of San Juan. The old municipality of Río Piedras constituted the third most populated city of Puerto Rico at the time of its annexation in 1951. Its strategic location south of the capital served as a junction for all the principal ways of transportation of the island and as a geographical entry to San Juan, which are factors that prompted Río Piedras's dramatic urban development in the 20th century.[citation needed]

According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of San Juan was as follows:

Among the Hispanic and Latino population, Puerto Ricans are, unsurprisingly, the largest group; they make up 87.5% of San Juan's Hispanic population. People of Dominican descent made up 12.2% of the Hispanic population, while those of Cuban descent formed 1.7% of the Hispanic populace. Other Hispanic and Latino groups collectively formed 3.2% of San Juan's Hispanic population.

There are 4,822 whites of non-Hispanic origin living in San Juan; 1,187 blacks of non-Hispanic origin living in San Juan. Non-Hispanic whites and blacks form 1.2% and 0.3% of San Juan's population respectively. There are also approximately 673 Asians of non-Hispanic origin in San Juan; they make up less than 0.1% of the population. However, Asians of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin together number at 6,342. The vast majority of Asians in San Juan are of Chinese descent; of the 6,342 Asians, 4,928 are Chinese. Chinese comprise 1.4% of the population. The only other sizable Asian group in San Juan are Indian Americans; there are 698 people of Indian descent in the city, forming 0.2% of the population. There are very small numbers of people of Filipino, Japanese, and Vietnamese ancestry; none of these groups number more than 100 members.[59]

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, 87.5% of San Juan's population was native and 12.5% were foreign-born. Of the native population, 86.9% were born in Puerto Rico or the U.S. proper, of which 75.6% were born in Puerto Rico and 8.9% were born in the U.S. The other 0.7% were born in a different U.S. territory or born abroad to American parents. The remaining 11.9% of the population were born outside the United States and U.S. territories. In recent years, an increasing number of Americans not of Hispanic ancestry (both of African American and of White American descent) have moved to San Juan. In addition, a large number of Stateside Puerto Ricans have settled in the city upon their return to Puerto Rico. There is also a growing West Indian population, both of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin.

In terms of ancestry, 23,875 people claimed American ancestry, which is equivalent to 5.8% of San Juan's population. Other sizable ancestry groups included those of Italian descent, French descent, and West Indian descent. People of Italian descent numbered at 1,694, forming 0.4% of the population; people of French descent numbered at 1,064, forming 0.2% of the population. Finally, those of West Indian descent numbered at 1,393, forming 0.3% of San Juan's population. Approximately 1,026 people claimed Sub-Saharan African ancestry; 719 claimed Irish ancestry; 646 claimed German ancestry; 431 claimed Arab ancestry, and 346 claimed English ancestry. There are many other ancestry groups in San Juan, but they are very scant.[60]


San Juan experienced significant economic growth following World War II. During this period the city underwent an industrial revolution, although as of 1984 it had never generated its own economic region.[61][62] The city's economy relies mostly on companies dedicated to the manufacture of several products, including: Chemical substances (bleach and house cleaning products); medicines; rum and other beverages; fertilizers; electric tools; electronic devices; plastics, textiles, and food-based products.[62] Tourism is also a key industry, based on San Juan's proximity to Puerto Rico's main airport, the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport.[62] The tourism focus of the city is located in the district of Condado Beach where there are luxurious hotels.[62] Historical locations such as El Morro, Old San Juan and El Cuartel de Ballaja are promoted in tourism campaigns. The district of Hato Rey contains a corporate sector known as "La Milla de Oro", (The Golden Mile) which serves as the headquarters of local and international banks. San Juan's Hato Rey district is often referred to as the "Wall Street of the Caribbean", due to the influence of the area on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean's economy.[55]

Seaborne Airlines is headquartered on the 9th floor of the World Plaza Building in San Juan.[63]


Statues where people gather in Old San Juan
San Juan beach

Technological advances after World War II in the development of the airliner, coupled with the island's climate and natural setting, have transformed San Juan into the springboard for tourism around the island, and has made the rest of the Caribbean known throughout the world during the last fifty years.[64] Today the capital features hotels, museums, historical buildings, restaurants, beaches and shopping centers. In San Juan there are tourist attractions, including: Old San Juan, Ocean Park, Isla Verde and Condado.

Places and monuments emphasized in tourism campaigns include: Old San Juan, promoting the historic nature of its colonial buildings and narrow streets covered by adoquine, a blue stone cast from furnace slag; they were brought over as ballast on Spanish ships.[62] This includes the city's ancient defensive wall and forts, most notably El Morro and the Castillo San Cristóbal.[62] On January 23, 1984 both of these edifices were catalogued as being part of humanity's cultural patrimony.[62] The restaurants and art galleries in the zone are visited by tourists.[62] The local universities are promoted as historic places, most notably the campus of University of Puerto Rico located in Río Piedras, which is the oldest university on the island being founded in 1903.

Post Hurricane Maria

An April 2019 report indicated that, by that time, repairs after Hurricane Maria were moving rapidly. Only a few hotels were still closed in San Juan and that life for tourists in and around the capital had, for the most part, returned to normal.[65] By October 2019, nearly all of the popular amenities for tourists, in the major destinations such as San Juan, Ponce and Arecibo, were in operation on the island and tourism was rebounding. This was important for the economy, since tourism provides up 10% of Puerto Rico's GDP, according to Discover Puerto Rico.[66]

In late November 2019, reports indicated that 90 calls to San Juan by Royal Caribbean ships would be cancelled during 2020 and 2021. This step would mean 360,000 fewer visitors, with a loss to the island's economy of $44 million. As well, 30 ship departures from San Juan were being canceled. The rationale for this decision was discussed in a news report, as follows:[67]

The reason for the cancellations is the privatization of the cruise docks in San Juan due to much-needed maintenance that is needed. Around $250 million investment is needed to make sure cruise ships can continue to dock there in the years to come. There is an urge for governor Wanda Vazquez to not go ahead with the privatization so this news is fluid.[needs update]


San Juan is the birthplace of artists and musicians, locally known as Sanjuaneros, who have significantly influenced Puerto Rican culture. During the 20th century, the musical aspect of the city was influenced by performers including Afro-Caribbean dancer and choreographer Sylvia del Villard and José Enrique Pedreira who became a composer of Puerto Rican Danzas. International musicians such as opera singer Justino Díaz and Grammy Award winners Ramón Ayala (Daddy Yankee) and Ricky Martin were born in the city. Other notable residents include writers Giannina Braschi and Tomas Blanco, award-winning actors Raul Julia and Benicio del Toro, and comedian José Miguel Agrelot. Rafael Cordero (1790–1868), was influential in the development of Puerto Rican education and has been once renowned[by whom?] as " The Father of Public Education in Puerto Rico". The city is also the home of contemporary and classic art museums. The Puerto Rico Arts Museum owns the largest collection of contemporary art in Puerto Rico, housing over 1,100 permanent art pieces and displaying temporary exhibitions containing artwork from various locations through Latin America.[68]

The Puerto Rico Museum of Contemporary Art, located in Santurce, specializes in contemporary artwork from Latin America and the Caribbean. The paintings displayed in the permanent exhibition are either acquired by the museum's administrative personnel or donated by artists and collectors. They are judged by a panel of painters, art critics, and scholars before being displayed.[69]

Other museums such as the Pablo Casals Museum, the Book Museum, Americas Museum and the National Gallery display historic items and artwork alongside contemporary art.[70][71] Miscellaneous museums such as the Children's Museum and the Bacardi Distillery (also known as the "Rum Cathedral") in nearby Cataño appeal to different audiences through interactive exhibitions.[72][73]


As one of Puerto Rico's 78 municipalities, San Juan's government consists of two branches, the executive and the legislative. Those citizens eligible to vote directly elect the Mayor of San Juan and the municipal assembly for four-year terms. The municipal government is housed in City Hall or Casa Alcaldia, which is located at 153 San Francisco Street, facing the Plaza de Armas at the center of Old San Juan.[74] City Hall was constructed based on Madrid's City Hall starting in 1604 and finally completed in 1789.[74]

The executive branch is headed by a popularly elected mayor. The office is held by Miguel Romero Lugo who won in the 2020 general election.[75] Miguel Romero Lugo took over from Carmen Yulín Cruz, who was elected at the 2012 general election. Before her, Jorge A. Santini held the position for 12 years. In addition to running the city's day-to-day operations and supervising associated departments, the mayor is responsible for appointing a secretary-auditor and a treasurer. San Juan's Municipal Legislature is made up of 17 municipal legislators, elected at-large, which represent the city's population.[76]

San Juan is also the seat of the Puerto Rico Senatorial district I, which is represented by two Senators.[77]


In 2010 there were 201 homicides in San Juan, a rate of around 50 per 100,000 residents. Law enforcement in San Juan is the joint responsibility of the Department of Police and Public Safety, also known as the San Juan Police Department and the Puerto Rico Police Department.[78] The Municipal Police, originally known as the "San Juan Municipal Guard", was created in 1521 and had active military and law enforcement functions until 1980, when Act #77 created municipal law enforcement agencies in Puerto Rico. It employs over 1,000 sworn officers plus civilian staff.[79]



Colleges and universities

Main tower of the University of Puerto Rico campus in Río Piedras

San Juan is home to many of Puerto Rico's institutions of higher learning. The University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus is located in San Juan, along with the University of Puerto Rico's Medical Sciences Campus. Other colleges located in San Juan are the University of the Sacred Heart, the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico, the Ana G. Méndez University System's Metropolitan University, the Metropolitan Campus of the Inter American University of Puerto Rico, the Carlos Albizu University, the Evangelic Seminary of Puerto Rico and the Center for Advanced Studies on Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. There are smaller colleges located in the city, including the ICPR Junior College, the Instituto de Banca y Comercio and the International Junior College, located in Santurce.[80] There are also several technical schools based in San Juan, including the Technological College of San Juan, the Liceo de Artes y Ciencias, Ramirez College of Business and Technology, and the Puerto Rico Technical Junior College. The Puerto Rico Conservatory of Music and the School of Fine Arts in Old San Juan specialize in education that promotes the fine arts and music.[80]

Public and private schools

Also, San Juan is home to 136[citation needed] public schools operated by the Puerto Rico Department of Education. Most of the specialized schools operated by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are located in San Juan. These schools emphasize topics such as Science and Math, Radio and Television, Arts, Trade, Music, and Sports, but also include other subjects such as Spanish, English, and Social Studies in their curriculum. In addition to dozens of state-run elementary, intermediate, and high schools, the government of the city of San Juan operates two bilingual schools, including one sports-magnet school, the first municipal-run schools in Puerto Rico.[citation needed] Several private schools are located in San Juan, including Robinson and St. John's schools in the Condado, Perpetuo Socorro in Miramar, St. John's Episcopal, Santa Mónica and Academia San Jorge in Santurce, Commonwealth High School, La Merced and Espíritu Santo in Hato Rey, Escuela Josefita Monserrate de Selles, San Antonio, Colegio San Ignacio de Loyola, San José in Río Piedras and Cupeyville, St. Mary's, Boneville and Cupey Maria Montesory School in Cupey.


A street scene in Old San Juan

The Port of San Juan is the fourth busiest seaport in the Western Hemisphere, ranked among the top 17 in the world in terms of container movement. It is also the largest home-based cruise port in the world with over a dozen cruise ships. It is the second busiest port in cruise volume after Miami.[citation needed]

The Metropolitan Area is served by two airports. The Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, San Juan's primary commercial airport, is located eight miles (12.9 km) from Old San Juan in the neighboring municipality of Carolina. The airport accommodates more than 30 domestic and international airlines and is the busiest airport in the Caribbean. It is often referred to as "The Gateway to the Caribbean" because it serves as the main connection to the island and the rest of the Caribbean for the United States and vice versa. The area's secondary airport is the Fernando Ribas Dominicci Airport, which is located directly across the San Antonio Creek or Cano San Antonio from Old San Juan in the Isla Grande district.[81] Dominicci Airport is used mainly by general aviation aircraft, charter flights, and some domestic commercial flights. It used to be the city's and also the island of Puerto Rico's main international gateway until the opening of Luis Muñoz Marin International Airport. It is now also widely used by the Isla Grande Flight School and Caribbean Flight Center, the only flight school on the island.

There are 193 bridges in San Juan.[82]

Public transport

At 4,300 vehicles per paved mile, San Juan has by far the highest density of vehicles on the road of any city in the world.[83] The city is served by five limited-access expressways and highways and numerous arterial avenues and boulevards, but continues to suffer from severe traffic congestion.[84]

The Metropolitan Bus Authority (Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses or AMA in Spanish) provides daily bus transportation to residents of San Juan, Guaynabo, Bayamón, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Cataño and Carolina through 30 fixed routes. Its fleet consists of 277 regular buses and 35 handicap-accessible buses. AMA's ridership is estimated at 112,000 on weekdays.[85] There is also a daily ferry service, known as the Cataño Ferry (La Lancha de Cataño), which operates between Old San Juan and the town of Cataño.[86]

The T5, 21 and 53 buses pass between Old San Juan, Condado and Isla Verde. More information is available at

In an attempt to decrease vehicle dependency and road congestion, the city built a metro system dubbed "Tren Urbano" ("Urban Train"). The 10.7-mile (17.2 km) line connects to 16 stations.[87] The project, which opened in late 2004, cost $2.25 billion and was more than $1 billion over budget and four years late. The Tren Urbano has received less ridership than was originally projected and has not significantly reduced the city's automobile traffic, despite a reported 7.5% ridership increase in 2006 over 2005. There is a planned project to build an "interurban light rail system" connecting the cities of San Juan and Caguas.[88]

Increased investment in public transportation, however, has not changed the fact that San Juan is an automobile-reliant city and its fast growth has sparked urban sprawl. As of mid-2010, the government has approved plans for a redesign of this Puerto Rican city, featuring a new mass transit system, new roads and intersections, and more beach-access points. No cars will be allowed inside the oldest part of city (Old San Juan). The plans hope to remedy previous poor urban planning in the oldest section of the city, the Isleta, while curbing reliance on motor vehicles. The plans for redevelopment also hope to make the city more appealing in order to attract new residents, as San Juan has suffered from a shrinking population over the past 60 years.[89]

Health and utilities

San Juan has an elaborate system of triage, hospital, and preventive care health services. The municipal government sponsors regular health fairs in different areas of the city focusing on health care for the elderly and the disabled. There are 20 hospitals in San Juan, half of them operated by the government. The largest hospital in San Juan and most important of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean[citation needed] is the Rio Piedras Medical Center, or Centro Medico de Rio Piedras in Spanish. This hospital, founded in 1956, is operated by the Medical Services Administration of the Department of Health of Puerto Rico. It is made up of eight other hospitals.

  • San Juan Municipal Hospital: This hospital is operated by the San Juan municipal government.
  • Industrial Hospital: This is the hospital for Puerto Rico government employees, whether municipal or Commonwealth government employees. Normally, injured police officers and firefighters are cared for here.
  • San Juan Pediatric Hospital - Also operated by the San Juan municipal government.
  • Pediatric Hospital: Operated by the government of the Commonwealth, this is the main trauma hospital for pediatric cases.
  • Centro Médico: This is the main hospital for trauma cases for Puerto Rico and the Caribbean.
  • Centro Cardiovascular del Caribe (Caribbean Cardiovascular Center): This is the main hospital for open heart surgery in the Caribbean. It features a hotel for the patients' families.
  • Psychiatric Hospital: The main psychiatric hospital in Puerto Rico. Operated by the government of Puerto Rico.
  • Psychiatric Correctional Hospital: It is both a hospital and correctional facility. It is operated jointly by the Puerto Rico Department of Corrections and the Medical Services Administration.

The city of San Juan operates 10 hospitals. Of these, nine are Diagnostic and Treatment Centers located in communities throughout San Juan. The main hospital is located at Centro Medico. These 10 hospitals are:

  • La Perla
  • Puerta de Tierra
  • Llorens Torres
  • Puerto Nuevo
  • San José
  • Rio Piedras
  • Sabana Llana
  • Hoare
  • Santurce Parada 19
  • General Hospital (Centro Medico)

Also, there are 10 private hospitals in San Juan. These are:

  • Hospital Metropolitano
  • Hospital Auxilio Mutuo
  • Hospital Auxilio Mutuo Expreso
  • Hospital de Veteranos: The main Veterans hospital in the Caribbean. Operated by the U.S. Veteran Healthcare System.
  • Ashford Presbyterian Hospital
  • Hospital Pavia Hato Rey
  • Hospital Pavia Santurce
  • San Jorge Children's Hospital: The most well known children's hospital in the San Juan Metropolitan Area.
  • Hospital San Gerardo: Located at the Cupey neighborhood, is a small hospital but is also specialized in psychiatry and elderly.
  • Hospital del Maestro (Teachers Hospital): Located in Hato Rey, this hospital is operated by the Puerto Rico Teachers Association.


Teams based in San Juan have been notably successful in athletic competition. The Santurce Crabbers won the National Superior Basketball League championship in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2003 during this period being recognized as a dynasty. The San Juan Senators and the Santurce Crabbers were the two major baseball teams in the city, winning the championship of the Puerto Rican Professional Baseball League a total of 17 times. The Santurce Crabbers are located third among teams with more championships in the Caribbean Series, winning championships in the 1951, 1953, 1955, 1993 and 2000 editions of the tournament. The city has also been the host of events within the sports community; some examples include:

The $28 million San Juan Natatorium attracts island-wide and regional swim meets, as well as winter training by top-rated mainland U.S. colleges and universities, including the United States Military Academy at West Point and the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis.

In July 2007, the San Juan Golf Academy and its driving range began operating atop the city's former sanitary landfill in Puerto Nuevo, and will eventually include the city's first and only 9-hole golf course.

Professional teams

Club Sport League Venue
Cangrejeros de Santurce Basketball Baloncesto Superior Nacional Roberto Clemente Coliseum
Cangrejeros de Santurce Baseball Puerto Rico Baseball League Hiram Bithorn Stadium[97][98]
Atléticos de San Juan Football/Balompié (Soccer) Puerto Rico Soccer League
Academia Quintana
San Juan United Puerto Rico Soccer League Second Division Sixto Escobar Stadium[99]

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

San Juan is twinned with:[100]



Notable people from San Juan

See also


  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. ^ Official records for San Juan were kept at downtown from November 1898 to December 1955 and at Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport since January 1956.[41]


  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990" . United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  2. ^ San Juan, Ciudad Capital Archived October 3, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names" . United States Geological Survey. July 5, 2015. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  4. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Puerto Rico's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting" . United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  5. ^ Magaly Rivera. "San Juan Capital City" . Welcome to Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2007.
  6. ^ "the San Juan Port" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico Port Authority. 2007. Archived from the original on August 3, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  7. ^ "About Puerto Rico" . Puerto Rico Tourism Company. 2007. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  8. ^ "Nearly two years after Hurricane Maria devastation, Puerto Rico welcomes record number of tourists" . ViaHero. April 2, 2019. Archived from the original on November 27, 2019. Retrieved October 16, 2019. Almost all of Puerto Rico's hotels are open for business.
  9. ^ "Guaynabo -- Encyclopædia Britannica" (with history of Puerto Rico),Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006, webpage:EB-Guaynabo-Puerto-Rico Archived October 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine:names: Caparra, the first Spanish settlement of Puerto Rico (1508).
  10. ^ "Historic places in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands" . National Park Service. Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. Retrieved May 2, 2007.
  11. ^ "Nueva España documents and transcripts, ca. 1700-ca. 1799" . New York Public Library. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  12. ^ "Historia de San Juan de Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Vive San Juan. 2006. Archived from the original on May 1, 2007. Retrieved May 2, 2007.
  13. ^ Puerto Rico . Russell Schimmer, Genocide Studies Program, Yale University. Archived March 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "San Juan National Historic Site" . National Park Service. 2000. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2007.
  15. ^ William Figueroa (2000). "History of Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Sol Boricua. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2007.
  16. ^ "DON JUAN DE HARO Y LOS HOLANDESES" (24 de Septiembre de 1625) Archived February 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ The History of Puerto Rico From the Spanish Discovery to the American Occupation / Middeldyk, R.A. Van Identifier: etext12272 The History of Puerto Rico From the Spanish Discovery to the American Occupation Archived January 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ José Oquendo. "1898 - Adjuntas en la Guerra Hispanoamericana" (in Spanish). Historia de Adjuntas, Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2006.
  19. ^ Miguel J. Hernández. "Erwin Letter from US Marine Alden Morse, at the USS New York, relating the bombing of San Juan del 12 Mayo 1898" . Coquí.Net. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  20. ^ a b c "1898 - Adjuntas en la Guerra Hispanoamericana" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2006.
  21. ^ "Chronology of Puerto Rico in the Spanish–American War" . The World of 1898: The Spanish–American War. Hispanic Division, Library of Congress. Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  22. ^ Karl Stephen Herrman (2004). From Yauco to Las Marias a Recent Campaign in Puerto Rico. Kessinger Publishing. p. 2. ISBN 1-4191-2123-5.
  23. ^ "History of the 65th Infantry 1898 to 1946 page 1" . Archived from the original on February 2, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  24. ^ "US Naval Institute Proceedings"; "A Breach of Neutrality"; by: Lt. Isaiah Olch, US Navy; Vol. 62; July - December 1936
  25. ^ "CALLS ODENWALD AFFAIR AN ATTACK; Fired On Without Warning Shot, Germany Asserts, Contradicting San Juan Commander. SAYS SHE WAS UNDULY HELD Violated Clearance to Elude Enemy Cruisers That Had Been Warned She Was About to Sail" . The New York Times. April 7, 1915. Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved August 10, 2008.
  26. ^ "PR - A Commonwealth of the USA" . Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  27. ^ "El Mundo"; "Fallece El Aguila - Fue Primer Boricua Manejo Avion en la Isla" (Spanish); by: Malen Rojas Daporte; October 20, 1954; Number 13,448
  28. ^ "El Nuevo Dia" . Archived from the original on May 2, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  29. ^ "heroe del 65 Satisfecho de Haber Cumplido su Deber"; El Mundo; May 2, 1952
  30. ^ El ataque Nacionalista a La Fortaleza; by Pedro Aponte Vázquez; Page 2; Publisher: Publicaciones RENÉ; ISBN 978-1-931702-01-0
  31. ^ "Ley Núm. 70 de 2006 -Ley para disponer la oficialidad de la bandera y el escudo de los setenta y ocho (78) municipios" . LexJuris de Puerto Rico (in Spanish). Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  32. ^ "San Juan (Puerto Rico)" . Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  33. ^ "San Juan" . LexJuris (Leyes y Jurisprudencia) de Puerto Rico (in Spanish). February 19, 2020. Archived from the original on February 19, 2020. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  34. ^ "Puerto Rico Geography" . Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2007.
  35. ^ "Preliminary Locations of Landslide Impacts from Hurricane Maria, Puerto Rico" . USGS Landslide Hazards Program. USGS. Archived from the original on March 3, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  36. ^ "Preliminary Locations of Landslide Impacts from Hurricane Maria, Puerto Rico" (PDF). USGS Landslide Hazards Program. USGS. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 3, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  37. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for San Juan, PR – Temperature and Precipitation" . The Weather Channel. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
  38. ^ a b c d "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  39. ^ "Climate information for San Juan Intl. Airport" . Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved June 1, 2007.
  40. ^ a b "WMO Climate Normals for SAN JUAN/ISLA VERDE INT'L ARP,PR 1961–1990" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
  41. ^ ThreadEx
  42. ^ "Station: San Juan L M Marin AP, PR RQ" . U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 17, 2021.
  43. ^ "San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data" . Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  44. ^ Grupo Editorial EPRL. "Viejo San Juan" . Enciclopedia Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  45. ^ "San Juan map: Municipo de San Juan" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  46. ^ "Los Castillos del Viejo San Juan" (in Spanish). National Park Service. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  47. ^ [1] Archived October 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ "History of El Cuartel de Ballajá" (in Spanish). Coquí.Net. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
  49. ^ E. Ramirez Brau (2005). "Viejo Cementerio de San Juan (graveyard's history)" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on January 16, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
  50. ^ "Teatro Tapia" . Yahoo Travel. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
  51. ^ "Official Web Site of the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
  52. ^ "Puerto Rico Cheap Hotels: Condado, Old San Juan, Isla Verde and Ocean Park budget hotels" . Hola San Juan. 2007. Archived from the original on April 19, 2018. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  53. ^ "Informese: Miramar designated a historical district" . MiramarPR. 2007. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  54. ^ "Official site of the Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico. 2006. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  55. ^ a b c Brenda A. Mari (November 19, 2004). "Eatin' Where The Cows Used To Roam: Hato Rey Dining At Its Best" . The Puerto Rico Herald. Archived from the original on November 24, 2004. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  56. ^ "Official site of the University of Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Universidad de Puerto Rico. 2007. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  57. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "U.S. Census website" . Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  58. ^ "San Juan and its barrios" . United States Census Bureau. 2008. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
  59. ^ "American FactFinder" . Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  60. ^ "American FactFinder" . Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  61. ^ Cities and the Wealth of Nations, Chapter 3, Jane Jacobs, 1984
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h Microsoft Encarta Biblioteca (2006), Microsoft Corporation
  63. ^ "General Info " (Archive ). Seaborne Airlines. Retrieved on April 18, 2015. "Mailing Address: Seaborne Airlines World Plaza Building, 9th Floor 268 Muñoz Rivera Ave. San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918"
  64. ^ Puerto Rico, Borinquen Querida - Authors; Roger A. LaBrucherie, Imágenes Press, (1992) ISBN 0-939302-26-8
  65. ^ "Nearly two years after Hurricane Maria devastation, Puerto Rico welcomes record number of tourists" . USA Today. April 2, 2019. Archived from the original on November 27, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019. Brief power outages still hit occasionally as the government prepares to privatize an aging and poorly maintained grid that was destroyed by the hurricane, and water shortages have hit parts of Puerto Rico's north coast since 30 percent of the island is experiencing a moderate drought that is affecting 791,000 of its 3.2 million inhabitants.
  66. ^ "Nearly two years after Hurricane Maria devastation, Puerto Rico welcomes record number of tourists" . ViaHero. April 2, 2019. Archived from the original on November 27, 2019. Retrieved October 16, 2019. Almost all of Puerto Rico's hotels are open for business. The beaches are ready for swimming and sunbathing, and even remote places to visit like El Yunque rainforest are receiving visitors.
  67. ^ "Cruise Ship Visits to San Juan, Puerto Rico Are Being Canceled" . Cruise Hive. November 27, 2019. Archived from the original on November 27, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019. Cruise ship visits to San Juan, Puerto Rico are being canceled for the 2020-21 season due to the privatization of the cruise port.
  68. ^ "Colección Permanente" (in Spanish). Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
  69. ^ "Colección Parmanente" (in Spanish). Museo de Arte Contemporaneo de Puerto Rico. 2004. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
  70. ^ "Orígenes, historia y misión del Museo" (in Spanish). Museo las Americas. 2007. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
  71. ^ "Galería Nacional, Viejo San Juan" . Instituto de Cultura Puertoriqueña. 2003. Archived from the original on June 18, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
  72. ^ "Historia del Museo del Niño" (in Spanish). Museo del Niño. Archived from the original on June 5, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
  73. ^ "Puerto Rico Attractions and Museums" . Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
  74. ^ a b "Historia de San Juan: Casa Alcaldía" (in Spanish). Municipio de San Juan. Archived from the original on February 25, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
  75. ^ "San Juan Results" . December 31, 2020.
  76. ^ "Historia breve de la Asamblea Municipal" (in Spanish). Municipio de San Juan. Archived from the original on July 17, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
  77. ^ Distribución de Distritos Senatoriales de Puerto Rico Archived November 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine on ElectionsPuertoRico
  78. ^ "Departamento de Policía y Seguridad Pública" (in Spanish). Municipio de San Juan. Archived from the original on November 15, 2007. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
  79. ^ Leysa Caro González (June 30, 2008). "De negro bajo el sol" . Primera Hora (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 28, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2010.
  80. ^ a b "Puerto Rico Colleges and Universities" . Infoplease. 2006. Archived from the original on November 3, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
  81. ^ "Autoridad de puertos de Puerto Rico official website" (in Spanish). Autoridad de Puertos de Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on October 7, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  82. ^ "San Juan Bridges" . National Bridge Inventory Data. US Dept. of Transportation. Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  83. ^ Highest auto density in the world Archived January 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  84. ^ "About Puerto Rico...San Juan" . Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
  85. ^ "AMA: Descripción" (in Spanish). Departamento de Transportación Publica. 2006. Archived from the original on May 2, 2007. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
  86. ^ "Government's page on Lancha de Cataño's economical impact" (in Spanish). Gobierno de Puerto Rico. 2007. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  87. ^ "Alternativa de Transporte Integrado homepage" (in Spanish). Departamento de Trasportación Publica. 2006. Archived from the original on May 5, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  88. ^ "Caguas To San Juan In 15 Minutes" . Puerto Rico Herald. 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  89. ^ "Walkable City San Juan" . Issuu. 2010. Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  90. ^ "Historia de los Juegos Centro Americanos y del Caribe" (in Spanish). Unión Pan Americana de Judo. 1998. Archived from the original on April 21, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  91. ^ "VIII Pan American Games" . LA84 Foundation. Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  92. ^ "Caribbean World Series Historical Statistics 2005" . Latino Baseball. 2005. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  93. ^ Josh Dubow (2003). "Expos odyssey takes them back to Puerto Rico" . Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  94. ^ "Official site of the World Baseball Classic" . World Baseball Classic. 2006. Archived from the original on March 26, 2006. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  95. ^ "Year by Year Champions" . Fiba. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  96. ^ "New Year's revolution Pay-Per-View history" . World Wrestling Entertainment. 2005. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
  97. ^ "Afiliados: Atlético San Juan Fútbol Club" (in Spanish). Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
  98. ^ "Afiliados: Professional Team Academia Quintana FC" (in Spanish). Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
  99. ^ "Afiliados: San Juan United Soccer Club, Corp" (in Spanish). Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol. Archived from the original on July 27, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
  100. ^ "Online Directory: Puerto Rico, Caribbean" . Sister Cities International. 2007. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
  101. ^ "Sister Cities - Honolulu - Open Data Portal" . Socrata. Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  102. ^ "San Juan, Puerto Rico" . Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  103. ^ "Sister Cities Link Businesses, Create Opportunities" . Archived from the original on November 17, 2014. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  104. ^ "Killeen and San Juan, Puerto Rico now "sister cities" - KCEN HD - Waco, Temple, and Killeen" . December 12, 2010. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  105. ^ Twinning Cities Agreements Archived May 30, 2013, at WebCite UAE Official Website
  106. ^ "Dubai's sister cities #Dubai - Dubai City Guide" . Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2015.


External links


Information as of: 10.08.2021 02:02:48 CEST

Source: Wikipedia (Authors [History])    License of the text: CC-BY-SA-3.0. Creators and licenses of the individual images and media can either be found in the caption or can be displayed by clicking on the image.

Changes: Design elements were rewritten. Wikipedia specific links (like "Redlink", "Edit-Links"), maps, niavgation boxes were removed. Also some templates. Icons have been replaced by other icons or removed. External links have received an additional icon.

Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.
See also: Legal Notice & Privacy policy.