Trinity College Dublin

(Redirected from Trinity_College,_Dublin)

Trinity College (Irish: Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.[9] The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as "the mother of a university" that was modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these affiliated institutions, only one college was ever established; as such, the designations "Trinity College" and "University of Dublin" are usually synonymous for practical purposes.[10] The college is legally incorporated by "the Provost, Fellows, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board," as outlined by its founding charter.[11] It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland,[12] as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university.[13]

Trinity College
Collegium Sanctae Individuae Trinitatis
University of Dublin
University of Dublin, Trinity College.png
Full nameThe College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin[1]
Irish: Coláiste Thríonóid Naofa Neamhroinnte na Banríona Eilís gar do Bhaile Átha Cliath[2]
Latin nameCollegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin[3]
MottoPerpetuis futuris temporibus duraturam (Latin)[4]
Motto in EnglishIt will last into endless future times[4]
FounderElizabeth I of England and Ireland
Established1592; 429 years ago
Named forThe Holy Trinity[5]
Sister collegesSt. John's College, Cambridge
Oriel College, Oxford
ProvostLinda Doyle[6]
Undergraduates11,718 (2016–17)[7][8]
Postgraduates4,707 (2016–17)[7][8]
Location in Central Dublin
Trinity College Dublin (Dublin)
Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

Trinity College is widely considered one of Europe's most elite universities, in part due to its historical significance.[14] Academically, it is divided into 3 faculties comprising 23 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.[15] The admission procedure is based exclusively on academic merit.[16] The college is particularly acclaimed in the fields of Law, Literature and Humanities.[17] It also carries out extensive research in the fields of Nanotechnology, Information Technology, Immunology, Mathematics, Engineering, Psychology, Politics and English.[18] Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College, Cambridge and Oriel College, Oxford,[19][20] and by incorporation, a graduate of Dublin, Oxford or Cambridge can be conferred the equivalent degree at either of the other two without further examination.[21]

Originally, Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, and as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history.[22] While Catholics were admitted from 1793, certain restrictions on membership of the college remained, as professorships, fellowships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants. These restrictions were lifted by an Act of Parliament in 1873.[23] While there was no formal ban on Catholics attending Trinity at that time, the Catholic hierarchy in Ireland discouraged them from enrolling.[24] Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904.[25]

The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing around 7 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells, which arrived at the college in 1661 for safekeeping after the Cromwellian raids on religious institutions.[26] The collection housed in the Long Room includes a rare copy of the 1916 Proclamation of the Irish Republic and a 15th-century wooden harp, which is the model for the current emblem of Ireland. The library itself receives more than half a million visitors per year, making it the most important one in Ireland.[27][28]

The university has educated many of Ireland's historical poets, playwrights and authors, including Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift, Bram Stoker, William Trevor, Oliver Goldsmith and William Congreve, Nobel Laureates Samuel Beckett, Ernest Walton, Mairead Maguire and William Cecil Campbell, former Presidents of Ireland Mary McAleese, Douglas Hyde and Mary Robinson, philosophers including George Berkeley and Edmund Burke, politician David Norris and mathematician William Rowan Hamilton.

Trinity College was ranked 43rd in the world by the QS World University Rankings in 2009 and is currently ranked 101st in the world and 1st in Ireland.[29][30]



Early history

The Book of Kells is the most famous of the volumes in the Trinity College Library. Shown here are the Madonna and Child from Kells (folio 7v)

The first University of Dublin (known as the Medieval University of Dublin and unrelated to the current university) was created by the Pope in 1311,[31] and had a Chancellor, lecturers and students (granted protection by the Crown) over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation.

Following this, and some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth[Note 1] incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery, to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin.[32] The first provost of the college was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus (after whose former college at Cambridge the institution was named),[5] and he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton. Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new college, which then lay around one small square.[9]

During the following fifty years the community increased the endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed. The founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I in 1613 and most notably in 1637 by Charles I (who increased the number of fellows from seven to sixteen, established the Board – then the Provost and the seven senior Fellows – and reduced the panel of Visitors in size) and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria (and later still amended by the Oireachtas in 2000).[33]

18th and 19th centuries

Main Entrance (1837)
Bram Stoker, Trinity graduate and author of Dracula

During the eighteenth century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building. The first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century, Parliament Square slowly emerged. The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained (and which was succeeded by Trinity College's own Botanic Gardens). Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793,[34] prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. Certain disabilities remained. In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had previously been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion. Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland.[35] The decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresford was that Heron would remain excluded from Scholarship.[36] This decision confirmed that the legal position remained that persons who were not Anglicans (Presbyterians were also affected) could not be elected to Scholarship, Fellowship or be made a Professor. However within less than three decades of this, all disabilities imposed on Catholics were repealed as in 1873, all religious tests were abolished, except for entry to the divinity school. However, the Irish Catholic bishops responding to the increased ease, due to these changes, with which Catholics could attend an Institution which the Bishops saw as thoroughly Protestant in ethos, and in light of the establishment of the Catholic University of Ireland, in 1871 implemented a general ban on Catholics entering Trinity College, with few exceptions. "The ban" despite its longevity, is associated in the popular mind with Archbishop of Dublin John Charles McQuaid as he was made responsible for enforcing the ban from 1956 until it was rescinded by the Catholic Bishops of Ireland in 1970, shortly before McQuaid's retirement. Prior to 1956, it was the responsibility of the local Bishop.[9]

The nineteenth century was also marked by important developments in the professional schools. The law school was reorganised after the middle of the century. Medical teaching had been given in the college since 1711, but it was only after the establishment of the school on a firm basis by legislation in 1800, and under the inspiration of one Macartney, that it was in a position to play its full part, with such teachers as Graves and Stokes, in the great age of Dublin medicine. The Engineering School was established in 1842 and was one of the first of its kind in Ireland and Britain.[9]

20th century

Interior of the Old Library

In April 1900, Queen Victoria visited College Green in Dublin.[37]

Women were admitted to Trinity College as full members for the first time in 1904. For the period from 1904 to 1907, women from Oxford and Cambridge came to Trinity College to receive their ad eundem degree and were known as Steamboat ladies.[38]

In 1907, the Chief Secretary for Ireland proposed the reconstitution of the University of Dublin. A "Dublin University Defence Committee" was created and was successful in campaigning against any change to the status quo, while the Catholic bishops' rejection of the idea ensured its failure among the Catholic population. Chief among the concerns of the bishops was the remains of the Catholic University of Ireland, which would become subsumed into a new university, which on account of Trinity College would be part Anglican. Ultimately this episode led to the creation of the National University of Ireland. Trinity College was one of the targets of the Volunteer and Citizen Army forces during the 1916 Easter Rising but was successfully defended by a small number of unionist students,[39] most of whom were members of the university Officers' Training Corps. From July 1917 until March 1918 the Irish Convention met in the college in an attempt to address the political aftermath of the Easter rising. (Subsequently, following the failure of the Convention to reach "substantial agreement", the Irish Free State was set up in 1922.) In the post-independence period Trinity College suffered from a cool relationship with the new state. On 3 May 1955 the Provost, Dr A.J. McConnell, pointed out in a piece in the Irish Times that certain state-funded County Council scholarships excluded Trinity College from the list of approved institutions. This, he suggested, amounted to religious discrimination, which was forbidden by the constitution.[9] It has been said of the period prior to Éire leaving the Commonwealth that "The overwhelming majority of the undergraduates were ex-unionists or, if from Northern Ireland, unionists. Loyalty to the Crown was instinctive and they were proud to be British subjects and Commonwealth citizens."[40]

The School of Commerce was established in 1925, and the School of Social Studies in 1934. Also in 1934, the first female professor was appointed.[9]

In 1944 Archbishop of Dublin John Charles McQuaid required Catholics in the Dublin archdiocese to obtain a special dispensation before they could enter the university. The ban was extended nationally at the Plenary Synod of Maynooth in August 1956.[41] Despite this sectarianism, 1958 saw the first Catholic to reach the Board of Trinity as a Senior Fellow.[9]

In 1962 the School of Commerce and the School of Social Studies amalgamated to form the School of Business and Social Studies. In 1969 the several schools and departments were grouped into Faculties as follows: Arts (Humanities and Letters); Business, Economic and Social Studies; Engineering and Systems Sciences; Health Sciences (since October 1977 all undergraduate teaching in dental science in the Dublin area has been located in Trinity College); Science.[9]

In 1970 the Catholic Church lifted its ban on Catholics attending the college without special dispensation. At the same time, the Trinity College authorities invited the appointment of a Catholic chaplain to be based in the college.[42] There are now two such Catholic chaplains.[43]

In the late 1960s, there was a proposal for University College, Dublin, of the National University of Ireland, to become a constituent college of a newly reconstituted University of Dublin. This plan, suggested by Brian Lenihan and Donogh O'Malley, was dropped after opposition by Trinity College students.[44]

From 1975, the Colleges of Technology that now form the Dublin Institute of Technology had their degrees conferred by the University of Dublin. This arrangement was discontinued in 1998 when the DIT obtained degree-granting powers of its own.[45]

The School of Pharmacy was established in 1977 and around the same time, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine was transferred to University College, Dublin in exchange for its Dental School.[9] Student numbers increased sharply during the 1980s and 1990s, with total enrolment more than doubling, leading to pressure on resources and subsequent investment programme.

In 1991, Thomas Noel Mitchell became the first Roman Catholic elected Provost of Trinity College.[46]

21st century

Trinity College is today in the centre of Dublin. At the beginning of the new century, it embarked on a radical overhaul of academic structures to reallocate funds and reduce administration costs, resulting in, for instance, the mentioned reduction from six to five to eventually three faculties under a subsequent restructuring by a later governing authority. The ten-year strategic plan prioritises four research themes with which the college seeks to compete for funding at the global level. Comparative funding statistics reviewing the difference in departmental unit costs and overall costs before and after this restructuring are not however apparent.[47]

The Hamilton Mathematics Institute in Trinity College, named in honour of William Rowan Hamilton, was launched in 2005 and aims to improve the international profile of Irish mathematics, to raise public awareness of mathematics and to support local mathematical research through workshops, conferences and a visitor programme.[48]

In 2021, Prof. Linda Doyle was elected as the first woman Provost succeeding Patrick Prendergast.[49][50]

Buildings and grounds

Main Entrance
Parliament Square

Trinity College retains a tranquil collegiate atmosphere despite its location in the centre of a capital city (and despite its being one of the most significant tourist attractions in Dublin). This is, in large part, due to the compact design of the college, whose main buildings look inwards and are arranged in large quadrangles (called squares), and the existence of only a few public entrances.

The main college grounds are approximately 190,000 m2 (47 acres),[51] including the Trinity College Enterprise Centre nearby, and buildings account for around 200,000 m², ranging from works of older architecture to more modern buildings. The main entrance to the college is on the College Green, and its grounds are bounded by Nassau and Pearse Streets. The college is bisected by College Park, which has a cricket and rugby pitch.

The western side of the college is older, featuring the Campanile, as well as many fine buildings, including the Chapel and Examination Hall (designed by Sir William Chambers), Graduates Memorial Building, Museum Building, and the Rubrics (the sole surviving section of the original 17th century quadrangle) all spread across College's five squares. The Provost's House sits a little way up from the College Front Gate such that the House is actually on Grafton Street, one of the two principal shopping streets in the city, while its garden faces into the college. The Douglas Hyde Gallery, a contemporary art gallery, is located in the college as is the Samuel Beckett Theatre. It hosts national and international performances and is used by the Dublin International Theatre Festival, the Dublin Dance Festival, and The Fringe Festival, among others. During the academic term it is predominantly used as a teaching and performance space for Drama students and staff.

The eastern side of the college is occupied by Science buildings, most of which are modern developments, arranged in three rows instead of quadrangles. In 2010, Forbes ranked it as one of the 15 most beautiful college grounds in the world.[52]

The college also incorporates a number of buildings and facilities spread throughout the city, from the Politics and Sociology Departments, located on Dame Street, to the Faculty of Health Sciences buildings, located at St. James's Hospital and Tallaght University Hospital. The Trinity Centre at St James's Hospital incorporates additional teaching rooms, as well as the Institute of Molecular Medicine and John Durkan Leukaemia Institute. The college also owns a large set of residences four kilometres to the south of the college on the Dartry Road, in Rathmines, called Trinity Hall.[Note 2]

In November 2018, the college announced plans, estimated at €230 million, to develop university research facilities on a site in Grand Canal Dock as part of an "Innovation District" for the area.[53]


Interior of Trinity College Chapel

The current chapel was completed in 1798, and was designed by George III's architect, Sir William Chambers, who also designed the public theatre opposite the chapel on Parliament Square.[54] Reflecting the college's Anglican heritage, there are daily services of Morning prayer, weekly services of Evensong, and Holy Communion is celebrated on Tuesdays and Sundays. It is no longer compulsory for students to attend these.

The chapel has been ecumenical since 1970, and is now also used daily in the celebration of Mass for the Roman Catholic members of the college. In addition to the Anglican chaplain, who is known as the Dean of Residence, there are two Roman Catholic chaplains and one Methodist chaplain. Ecumenical events are often held in the chapel, such as the annual carol service and the service of thanksgiving on Trinity Monday.[55]


The Long Room of the Old Library
Arnaldo Pomodoro's Sphere Within Sphere sculpture stands outside the Berkeley Library[56]

The Library of Trinity College is the largest research library in Ireland. As a result of its historic standing, Trinity College Library Dublin is a legal deposit library (as per Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003) for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and has a similar standing in Irish law.[57] The college is therefore legally entitled to a copy of every book published in Great Britain and Ireland and consequently receives over 100,000 new items every year.[57] The library contains about five million books, including 30,000 current serials and significant collections of manuscripts, maps, and printed music. Three million books are held in the book depository, "Stacks", in Santry, from which requests are retrieved twice daily.

The Library proper is composed of several library buildings in college. The original (Old) Library is Thomas Burgh's masterpiece. A huge building, it originally towered over the university and city after its completion. Even today, surrounded by similarly scaled buildings, it is imposing and dominates the view of the university from Nassau Street. It was founded with the college and first endowed by James Ussher (1625–56), Archbishop of Armagh, who endowed his own valuable library, comprising several thousand printed books and manuscripts, to the college. The Book of Kells is by far the Library's most famous book and is located in the Old Library, along with the Book of Durrow, the Book of Howth and other ancient texts. Also incorporating the Long Room, the Old Library receives 600,000 visitors per year, making it the third most visited tourist destination in Dublin.[27][28] In the 18th century, the college received the Brian Boru harp, one of the three surviving medieval Gaelic harps, and a national symbol of Ireland, which is now housed in the library.

The buildings referred to as the college's BLU (Berkeley Lecky Ussher) Arts library complex consist of the Berkeley Library in Fellow's Square, built in 1956, the Lecky Library, attached to the Arts building, and the James Ussher Library which, opening officially in 2003, overlooks College Park and houses the Glucksman Map Library.[58] The Glucksman Library contains half a million printed maps, the largest collection of cartographic materials in Ireland. This includes the first Ordnance Surveys of Ireland, conducted in the early 19th century.

The Library also includes the William Hamilton Science and Engineering Library and the John Stearne Medical Library, housed at St James's Hospital.[58]

Business School

The Trinity College Business School building is an €80 million construction for Trinity's Business School. It was inaugurated on 23 May 2019 by the 14th Taoiseach, Leo Varadkar, who is also an alumnus of Trinity College School of Medicine.[59][60] The six-storey building, built adjoining the Naughton Institute on the College's Pearse St side, includes an Innovation and Entrepreneurial hub, a 600-seat auditorium, "smart classrooms" with digital technology, and an "executive education centre." The near-zero energy building provides a link between the city and the main University grounds.[61]


The college, officially incorporated as The Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is headed by the Provost. Linda Doyle has been the Provost since August 2021.[62][63]

University of Dublin

The terms "University of Dublin" and "Trinity College" are generally considered synonymous for all practical purposes.[10] They were founded after the University of Oxford and Cambridge in England, which adopted the so-called "400-year-old" college system (as opposed to the colleges in the United States). Rather than a single university, Oxford and Cambridge are a group of colleges that are collectively known as the University of Oxford and Cambridge. And these universities exist only as degree-granting institutions and the colleges provide the education/research. Similarly, the University of Dublin exists only as a degree-granting institution, with the college providing the education/research, and Trinity College is the only one that has been established.[9]


Statue of former provost George Salmon (by John Hughes) and the Campanile, both in Parliament Square

The body corporate of the college consists of the provost, fellows and scholars.[63] The college is governed according to its statutes which are, in effect, the College Constitution. Statutes are of two kinds, those which originally could only be amended by Royal Charter or Royal Letters Patent, and which now can only be changed by an Act of the Oireachtas and those which can be changed by the board but only with the consent of the Fellows. When a change requires parliamentary legislation, the customary procedure is that the Board requests the change by applying for a Private Bill. For this, the consent of the whole Body Corporate is needed, with Scholars voting alongside Fellows. An example of a change that requires parliamentary legislation is an alteration to the composition of the Board. This last happened when the governance of the college and university was revised and restated by an Act of the Oireachtas in 2000.[45]


The Provost serves a ten-year term and is elected by a body of electors consisting essentially of all full-time academic staff, and a very small number of students.[64] Originally the Provost was appointed for life. While the Provost was elected by the Fellows at the start, the appointment soon became a Crown one, reflecting the growing importance of the college and of the office of provost, which became both prestigious and well paid. However, as time passed it became customary that the appointments were only made after taking soundings of college opinion, which meant mostly the views of the Board. With the establishment of the Free State in 1922, the power of appointment passed to the Government. It was agreed that when a vacancy occurred the college would provide a list of three candidates to the Government, from which the choice would be made. The college was allowed to rank the candidates in order of preference and in practice, the most preferred candidate was always appointed. Now the Provost while still formally appointed by the Government is elected by staff plus student representatives, who gather in an electoral meeting, and vote by exhaustive ballot until a candidate obtains an absolute majority; the process takes a day. The Provost takes precedence over everyone else in the college, acts as the chief executive and accounting officer and chairs the board and council. The provost also enjoys a special status in the University of Dublin.[65]

Fellows and Scholars

Fellows and scholars are elected by the board. Fellows were once elected for life on the basis of a competitive examination. The number of fellows was fixed and a competition to fill a vacancy would occur on the death or resignation of a fellow. Originally all the teaching was carried out by the Fellows. Fellows are now elected from among current college academics, serve until reaching retirement age, and there is no formal limit on their number. Only a minority of academic staff are fellows. Election to fellowship is recognition for staff that they have excelled in their field and as such, amounts to a promotion for those receiving it. Any person appointed to a professorship who is not already a fellow, is elected a fellow at the next opportunity.[66]

Scholars continue to be selected by competitive examination from the Undergraduate body. The Scholarship examination is now set according to the several undergraduate courses. (So there is a scholarship examination in History, or in Mathematics or Engineering, and so forth). The Scholarship examination is taken in the second year of a four-year degree course (though, in special circumstances, such as illness, bereavement, or studying abroad during the second year, permission may be given to sit the examination in the third year). In theory, a student can sit the examination in any subject, not just the one they are studying. They hold their Scholarship until they are of "MA standing" that is, three years after obtaining the BA degree. (So most are Scholars for a term of five years).[67]

Fellows are entitled to residence in the college free of charge; most fellows do not exercise this right in practice, with the legal requirement to provide accommodation to them being fulfilled by providing an office. Scholars are also entitled to residence in the college free of charge, they also receive an allowance, and have the fees paid for courses they are taking within the college. However, due to pressure on college accommodation, Scholars are no longer entitled (as they once were) to free rooms for the full duration of their scholarship should they cease to be students. Fellows and Scholars are also entitled to one free meal a day, usually in the evening ("Commons"). Scholars retain the right to free meals for the full duration of their scholarship even after graduation, and ceasing to be students, should they choose to exercise it.[67]

The Board

Aside from the Provost, Fellows and Scholars, Trinity College has a Board (dating from 1637), which carries out general governance.[68] Originally the Board consisted of the Provost and Senior Fellows only. There were seven Senior Fellows, defined as those seven fellows that had served longest, Fellowship at that time being for life, unless resigned. Over the years a representational element was added, for example by having elected representatives of the Junior Fellows and of those Professors who were not Fellows, with the last revision before Irish Independence being made by Royal Letters Patent in 1911.[68] At that time there were, as well as the Senior Fellows, two elected representatives of those Professors that were not Fellows and elected representatives of the Junior Fellows. Over the years, while formal revision did not take place, partly due to the complexity of the process, a number of additional representatives were added to the Board but as "observers" and not full voting members.[69] These included representatives of academic staff who were not Fellows, and representatives of students. In practice all attending Board meetings were treated as equals, with votes while not common, being taken by a show of hands. But it remained the case, that legally only the full members of the Board could have their votes recorded and it was mere convention that they always ratified the decision taken by the show of hands.

The governance of Trinity College was next formally changed in 2000, by the Oireachtas, in legislation proposed by the Board of the college, and approved by the Body Corporate viz The Trinity College, Dublin (Charters and Letters Patent Amendment) Act, 2000. This was introduced separately from the Universities Act 1997.[70][45] It states that the Board shall comprise:[71]

  • The Provost, Vice-Provost/Chief Academic Officer, Senior Lecturer, Registrar and Bursar;
  • Six Fellows;
  • Five members of the academic staff who are not Fellows, at least three of whom must be of a rank not higher than senior lecturer;
  • Two members of the academic staff of the rank of professor;
  • Three members of the non-academic staff;
  • Four students of the college, at least one of whom shall be a post-graduate student;
  • One member, not an employee or student of the college, chosen by a Board committee from nominations made by organisations "representative of such business or professional interest as the Board considers appropriate";
  • One member nominated by the Minister for Education following consultation with the Provost.

The Council

There is a Council (dating from 1874), which oversees academic matters.[9] All decisions of the Council require the approval of the Board, but if the decision in question does not require a new expenditure, the approval is normally formal, without debate. The Council had a significant number of elected representatives from the start, and was also larger than the Board, which at that time, continued to consist of the Provost and seven Senior Fellows only. The Council is the formal body which makes academic staff appointments, always, in practice on the recommendation of appointments panels, but which have themselves been appointed by the Council.[9] An illustration of the relationship between the Board and the Council, is where a decision is made to create a new professorial chair. As this involves paying a salary, the initial decision to create the chair is made by the Council, but the decision to make provision for the salary is made by the Board, consequently, the Board might overrule, or defer a Council decision on grounds of cost.

The Senate

Seal of the Senate of the University of Dublin

The University of Dublin was modelled on University of Oxford and University of Cambridge in the form of a collegiate university, Trinity College being named by the Queen as the mater universitatis ("mother of the university").[72] As no other college was ever established, the college is the sole constituent college of the university and so Trinity College and the University of Dublin are for most practical purposes synonymous.[9] However, the actual statutes of the university and the college grant the university separate corporate legal rights to own property and borrow money and employ staff.[73] Moreover, while the board of the college has the sole power to propose amendments to the statutes of the university and college, amendments to the university statutes require the consent of the Senate of the university. Consequently, in theory, the Senate can overrule the Board, but only in very limited and particular circumstances. However, it is also the case that the university cannot act independently of the initiative of the Board of Trinity College. The most common example of when the two bodies must collaborate is when a decision is made to establish a new degree. All matters relating to syllabus, examination and teaching are for the college to determine, but actual clearance for the award of the degree is a matter for the university. In the same way, when an individual is awarded an Honorary Degree, the proposal for the award is made by the Board of Trinity College, but this is subject to agreement by a vote of the Senate of Dublin University. All graduates of the university who have at least a master's degree are eligible to be members of the Senate, but in practice, only a few hundred are, with a large proportion being current members of the staff of Trinity College.[74]


The college also has an oversight structure of two visitors, the chancellor of the university, who is elected by the Senate, and the judicial visitor, who is appointed by the Irish Government from a list of two names submitted by the Senate of the university. The current judicial visitor is the Hon. Dr. Justice Maureen Harding Clark. In the event of a disagreement between the two visitors, the opinion of the chancellor prevails. The visitors act as a final "court of appeal" within the college, with their modes of appointment giving them the needed independence from the college administration.[75]

Academic associations

Trinity College is a sister college to Oriel College of the University of Oxford and St John's College of the University of Cambridge.[19][20] In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge and the University of Dublin, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.[76]

Teaching and Affiliated Hospitals

As of 2021, the teaching and associated hospitals are the following:[77]

  • Tallaght University Hospital
  • St. James's Hospital
  • St Patrick's Hospital
  • Naas General Hospital
  • Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital
  • Rotunda Hospital
  • Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital
  • Children's Health Ireland at Crumlin
  • Peamount Hospital
  • National Rehabilitation Hospital

Associated Institutions

The School of Business in association with the Irish Management Institute forms the Trinity-IMI Graduate School of Management, incorporating the faculties of both organisations. Trinity College has also been associated in the past with a number of other teaching institutions. These include St Catherine's College of Education for Home Economics (now closed), Magee College and Royal Irish Academy of Music, which is a music conservatoire, as well as The Lir National Academy of Dramatic Art, which is the national conservatoire for theatre training actors, technicians, playwrights and designers to a professional and industry standard – the Lir is also advised by the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in the UK.

Parliamentary representation

The university has been linked to parliamentary representation since 1613, when James I granted it the right to elect two members of parliament (MPs) to the Irish House of Commons.[81] Since the new Constitution of Ireland in 1937, graduates of the university have formed a constituency which elects three Senators to Seanad Éireann. The current representatives of the university constituency are David Norris and Lynn Ruane, with one vacancy. Notable representatives have included Edward Gibson, W. E. H. Lecky, Edward Carson, Noel Browne, Conor Cruise O'Brien and Mary Robinson.[82] The franchise was originally restricted to the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of Trinity College. This was expanded in 1832 to include those who had received an M.A. and in 1918 all those who had received a degree from the university.

Academic profile

Since considerable academic restructuring in 2008, the college has three academic faculties:[15]

  • Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
  • Health Sciences

Each faculty is headed by a dean (there is also a Dean of Postgraduate Studies), and faculties are divided into schools, of which there were 24 as of 2021.[15]

Academic year

The academic year is divided into three terms. Michaelmas term lasts from October to December; Hilary term from January to March; and Trinity term from April to June, with each term separated by a vacation. Whilst teaching takes place across all three terms in postgraduate courses, for undergraduate programmes, teaching is condensed within the first two terms since 2009, with each term consisting of a twelve-week period of teaching known as the Teaching Term. These are followed by three revision weeks and a four-week exam period during the Trinity Term.[83]

Internally at least, the weeks in the term are often referred to by the time elapsed since the start of teaching Term: thus the first week is called "1st week" or "week 1" and the last is "Week 12"/"12th week".

The first week of Trinity Term (which marks conclusion of lecturing for that year) is known as Trinity Week; normally preceded by a string of balls, it consists of a week of sporting and academic events. This includes the Trinity Ball and the Trinity Regatta (a premier social event on the Irish rowing calendar held since 1898),[84] the election of Scholars and Fellows and a college banquet.

Second-level programmes

Since 2014, Trinity College's Science Department has established and operated a scheme for second-level students to study science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The system, similar to DCU's CTYI programme, encourages academically gifted secondary students with a high aptitude for the STEM subjects, was named the Walton Club[85] in honour of Ernest Walton, Ireland's first and only Nobel laureate for Physics. The programme was centred upon a pedagogic principle of "developing capacity for learning autonomy".[86] The educators in the programme are PhD students in the college, and they impart an advanced, undergraduate-level curriculum onto the students. The club was set up with a specific ethos around the mentoring of STEM subjects, and not as a grinds school.[87][88] The scheme, now in its third year, has been immensely successful and has undergone growth in scope and scale year on year. It has also diversified beyond its traditional weekly club structure, running camps during school holidays to offer an opportunity to study STEM to those unable to join the club.[89] It has also represented the college in many activities, meeting Chris Hadfield and attending the Young Scientist and Technology Exhibition and the Web Summit. Students, or alphas as they are dubbed in honour of the eponymous physicist, develop projects in the Club, with innovations pioneered there including a health-focused electroencephalogram.[87] The club was founded by Professors Igor Shvets and Arlene O'Neill of the School of Physics in Trinity College.[88]


Columbia University, which offers a dual BA

Most undergraduate courses require four years of study. First-year students at the undergraduate level are called Junior Freshmen; second years, Senior Freshmen; third years, Junior Sophisters; and fourth years, Senior Sophisters. After a proposal in 2017 by the SU Equality Committee, a three-year process changing the titles of first and second years to Junior and Senior Fresh was approved by the Trinity College Board.[90] Students must take the exams during Michaelmas term and during Trinity term of each year, and those who pass the exams can enter the next year. Students who score at least 70% on the exams will receive a first class honor degree, 60-69% an upper second class honor degree, 50-59% a lower second class honor degree, and 40-49% a third class honor degree.[91]

Most non-professional courses take a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree. As a matter of tradition, bachelor's degree graduates are eligible, after seven years from matriculation and without additional study, to purchase for a fee an upgrade of their bachelor's degree to a Master of Arts.

Degree titles vary according to the subject of study. The Law School awards the LL.B., the LL.B. (ling. franc.) and the LL.B. (ling. germ.). Other degrees include the BAI (engineering) and BBS (business studies). The BSc degree is not in wide use although it is awarded by the School of Nursing and Midwifery; most science and computer science students are awarded a BA.

From 2018, Trinity will be offering dual BA programme with Columbia University in New York City. Students of History, English, European Studies or Middle Eastern and European Languages and Culture spend their first two years at Trinity and their last two years at Columbia.[92]


At postgraduate level, Trinity offers a range of taught and research degrees in all faculties. About 29% of students are post-graduate level, with 1,440 students reading for a research degree and an additional 3,260 on taught courses (see Research and Innovation).[7][8][93]

Trinity College's Strategic Plan sets "the objective of doubling the number of PhDs across all disciplines by 2013 in order to move towards a knowledge society. In order to achieve this, the college has received some of the largest allocations of Irish Government funding which have become competitively available to date."[94]

In addition to academic degrees, the college offers Postgraduate Diploma (non-degree) qualifications, either directly, or through associated institutions.[95]


The university operates an innovation center that promotes academic innovation and advising, provides patent counseling and research information, and facilitates the creation and operation of industrial labs and campus businesses.[96]

In 1999, the university purchased an enterprise center on Pearse Street, a seven-minute walk from the on-site "Innovation Center." The site has over 19,000 square meters of built space and includes a protected building, the Tower, which houses a Craft Centre. The Trinity Enterprise Centre is home to companies from Dublin's university research sector.[96]


Undergraduate applications from Irish, British and European Union applicants are submitted and processed through the Central Applications Office system. Trinity College instructs the CAO to administer all applications by standardised criteria before offering places to successful candidates. The College, therefore, has full control of admissions while ensuring anonymity and academic equitably throughout the process. Admission to the university is highly competitive and based exclusively on academic merit.[97] In order to be considered for admission, all applicants must first reach the university's minimum matriculation requirements, which typically involves holding sufficient recognised qualifications in English, Mathematics and a second language, however, the Mathematics requirement can be waived if Latin is presented as a second language. Furthermore, applicants for certain courses may be required to achieve more specific qualifications than those prescribed for minimum matriculation requirements.[98]

Eligible applicants must then compete for places based on the results of their school leaving examinations, however, applicants can additionally take matriculation examinations[99] which are held in the university in April, in which each subject is considered equivalent to that of the Irish Leaving Certificate. Applications for restricted courses[100] require further assessment considered in the admissions process, such as the Health Professions Admissions Test (HPAT) for medicine or entrance tests for music and drama courses. As applications for most courses far exceeds available places, admission is highly selective, demanding excellent grades in the aforementioned examinations. Through the CAO, candidates may list several courses at Trinity College and at other third-level institutions in Ireland in order of preference. Places are awarded in mid-August every year by the CAO after matching the number of places available to the academic attainments of the applicants. Qualifications are measured as "points", with specific scales for the Leaving Certificate, UK GCE A-level, the International Baccalaureate and all other European Union school-leaving examinations.[101]

In 2016, there were 3,220 new entrants out of 18,469 CAO applicants.[102][103]

For applicants who are not citizens or residents of the European Union, different application procedures apply.[104] Disadvantaged, disabled, or mature students can also be admitted through a program that is separate from the CAO, the Trinity Access Programme,[105] which aims to facilitate the entry of sectors of society which would otherwise be under-represented.

Students from non-European countries, such as the United States, may be admitted directly if they have passed the International Baccalaureate or EU/EFTA exams and meet the minimum admission requirements. Admission is not guaranteed and places will be filled in order of merit by the applicants with the highest score.[106]

For those who have not taken the above exams, there is the one-year Foundation Program. This includes essays, discussions, question and answer sessions and study attitudes that prepare students for admission to Trinity College.[107] Students must demonstrate proficiency in English to be admitted to the Foundation Program and must have a minimum score on the IELTS, TOEFL or Duolingo English Test (DET). Requirements also vary depending on the program. In addition to English language proficiency, students must meet the high school score.[106]

Admission to graduate study is handled directly by Trinity College.[108]


Entrance Exhibition and sizarship

Students who enter with exceptional Leaving Certificate or other public examination results are awarded an Entrance Exhibition. This entails a prize in the form of book tokens to the value of €150.00. Exhibitioners who are of limited means are made Sizars, entitled to Commons (evening meal) free of charge.[109]

Foundation Scholarship

Announcement of Fellow and Scholars at Trinity College Dublin on Trinity Monday 2013

Undergraduate students of Senior Freshmen standing may elect to sit the Foundation Scholarship examination, which takes place in the Christmas Vacation, on the last week before Hilary term. On Trinity Monday (the first day of Trinity Term), the Board of the college sits and elects to the Scholarship all those who achieve First in the examination. Election to become a scholar of Trinity Dublin is widely regarded as "the most prestigious undergraduate award in the country".[110] Those from EU member countries are entitled to free rooms and Commons (the college's Formal Hall), an annual stipend and exemption from fees for the duration of their scholarship, which lasts for fifteen terms. Scholars from non-EU member countries have their fees reduced by the current value of EU member fees. Scholars may add the suffix "SCH." to their names, have the note "discip. schol." appended to their name at Commencements and are entitled to wear Bachelor's Robes and a velvet mortarboard.

Competition for Scholarship involves a searching examination and successful candidates must be of exceptional ability. The concept of scholarship is a valued tradition of the college, and many of the college's most distinguished members were elected scholars (including Samuel Beckett and Ernest Walton).[111][112] The Scholars' dinner, to which 'Scholars of the decade' (those elected in the current year, and every year multiple of a decade previous to it, e.g., 2013, 2003,..) are invited, forms one of the major events in Trinity's calendar.[112] One of the main objectives is the pursuit of excellence, and one of the most tangible manifestations of this objective is the institution of the scholarship.[112]

Under the Foundation Charter (of 1592), Scholars were part of the body corporate (three Scholars were named in the charter "in the name of many"). Until 1609 there were about 51 Scholars at any one time. A figure of seventy was permanently fixed in the revising Letters Patent of Charles I in 1637. Trinity Monday was appointed as the day when all future elections to Fellowship and Scholarship would be announced (at this time Trinity Monday was always celebrated on the Monday after the feast of the Holy Trinity). Up to this point, all undergraduates were Scholars, but soon after 1637 the practice of admitting students other than Scholars commenced.[112]

Until 1856, only the classical subjects were examined. The questions concerned all the classical authors prescribed for the entrance examination and for the undergraduate course up to the middle of the Junior Sophister year. So candidates had no new material to read, 'but they had to submit to a very searching examination on the fairly lengthy list of classical texts which they were supposed by this time to have mastered'. The close link with the undergraduate syllabus is underlined by the refusal until 1856 to admit Scholars to the Library (a request for admission was rejected by the Board in 1842 on the grounds that Scholars should stick to their prescribed books and not indulge in 'those desultory habits' that admission to an extensive library would encourage). During the second half of the nineteenth century, the content of the examination gradually came to include other disciplines.[112]

Around the turn of the 20th century, "Non-Foundation" Scholarships were introduced. This initially was a device to permit women to be, in effect, elected Scholars, despite the then commonly accepted legal view that the statute revision of 1637 only permitted males to be elected Foundation Scholars. Clearly, when women were not permitted in the college, this had not caused any difficulties, but with the admission of women as full members of the college, an anomaly was created. Non-Foundation Scholarship granted to the women elected to it all the rights of men, but with the exception of voting rights at a meeting of the Body Corporate, a very rare event in any case. As women are now admitted to Foundation Scholarship on exactly the same basis as men Non-Foundation Scholarships are retained as a device to allow for more than seventy persons to be Scholars at any one time provided sufficient meet the qualifying standards. Foundation Scholarships are given to those whose performance is considered particularly exceptional, with the remaining qualifying persons that year being elected as Non-Foundation Scholars. While the number of Foundation Scholars remains fixed at seventy, there is, in theory, no limit on the number of Non-Foundation scholars. Non-Foundation and Foundation Scholars receive the same benefits and therefore the two groups are regarded in equal esteem and usually refer to themselves collectively as the Scholars of Trinity College Dublin.[113] It is worth noting that when the college had only a few hundred members the Foundation Scholars could easily amount to ten per cent of the whole undergraduate body; now that the college numbers members in thousands even the addition of current numbers of Non Foundation Scholars means that the proportion of students elected Scholars is still lower than it has even been before, and being elected to Scholarship is more competitive than it was.


University rankings
Global – Overall
ARWU World[114]151-200 (2020)
CWUR World[115]213 (2020-21)
CWTS World[116]103 (2020)
QS World[117]101 (2022)
THE World[118]=155 (2021)
USNWR Global[119]=244 (2021)

It is ranked 101st in the world, 35th in Europe and 1st in Ireland in the Cuacarelli Simmons QS World University Rankings 2022, one of the world's leading indicators of university evaluation.[30][120] The highest ranking was in 2009, when it was ranked 43rd in the world.[29]

It is also ranked 155th in the world, 76th in Europe and 1st in Ireland in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2021.[121]

In response to a long-term decline in rankings (from 43rd according to the last combined THE/QS ranking in 2009[122] to 88th in QS[123] and 117th in THE for 2018) Trinity announced a plan in 2014 to reverse the trend, aiming to re-enter the top 50 bracket.[124] The dentistry program offered by the Dublin Dental University Hospital is ranked 51–75 in the world.[125]

World University Rankings
Year QS (Change)[126] THE (Change)[127]
2004 87
2005 111Decrease 24)
2006 78Increase 33)
2007 53Increase 25)
2008 49Increase 4)
2009 43Increase 6)
2010 52Decrease 9) 77Decrease 34)
2011 65Decrease 13) 76Increase 1)
2012 67Decrease 2) 117Decrease 41)
2013 61Increase 6) 110Increase 7)
2014 129Decrease 19)
2015 71Decrease 10) 138Decrease 9)
2016 78Decrease 7) 101Increase 37)
2017 98Decrease 20) 131Decrease 30)
2018 88Increase 10) 117Increase 14)
2019 104Decrease 16) 120Decrease 3)
2020 108Decrease 4) 164Decrease 44)
2021 101Increase 7) 155Increase 9)
2022 101Steady 0) TBA

Student life


As of 2020, Trinity College has 120+ societies. Student societies operate under the aegis of the Dublin University Central Societies Committee (CSC).[128][129]

Situated in the Graduates Memorial Building (GMB) are the two debating societies: University Philosophical Society (the Phil) and the College Historical Society (the Hist). The Phil meets each Thursday evening in the chamber of the GMB, while the Hist meets each Wednesday evening. Both the Phil and the Hist make claims to be the oldest such student society: the Phil claims to have been founded in 1683, although university records list its foundation as having occurred in 1853,[130] while the Hist was founded in 1770 (which it makes it the oldest society in College according to the Calendar).[130] Among the Honorary Patrons of the Phil are multiple Nobel Prize laureates, Heads of State, notable actors, entertainers and well-known intellectuals, such as Al Pacino, Desmond Tutu, Sir Christopher Lee, Stephen Fry, and Professor John Mearsheimer.[131] The Hist has been addressed by many notable orators including Winston Churchill and Ted Kennedy, and counts among its former members many prominent men and women in Ireland's history.[132]

Other societies include Vincent de Paul Society (VDP), which organises a large number of charitable activities in the local community;[133] DU Players, theatre and drama societies which hosts more than 50 shows and events a year in the Players Theatre;[134] The DU Film Society, founded in 1987 which organises filmmakers and film-lovers in college through workshops, screenings, production funding, etc.;[135] Trinity FM, broadcasts six weeks a year on FM 97.3 with various student productions;[136] The Q Soc - Trinity LGBT society, which is the oldest LGBT society in Ireland and celebrated its 25th anniversary in the 2007/2008 year;[137] The Card and Bridge Society also holds weekly poker and bridge tournaments and was the starting point to many notable alum including Andy Black, Padraig Parkinson and Donnacha O'Dea;[138] the Dublin University Comedy Society, known as DU Comedy, hosts comedy events for its members and has hosted gigs in college from comedians such as Andrew Maxwell, David O'Doherty, Neil Delamere and Colin Murphy;[139] The Dance Society, known as "DU Dance", provides classes in Latin and ballroom dancing, as well as running events around other dance styles such as swing dancing.[140][141] In 2011 the Laurentian Society was revived. This society had played a key role as a society for the few Catholic students who studied at Trinity while "the Ban" was still in force.[142][143] The Trinity Fashion Society was established in 2009, since then it holds an annual charity fashion show and hosts an international trip to London Fashion Week.[144]


A winter scene in College Park

There is a sporting tradition at Trinity and the college has 50 sports clubs affiliated to the Dublin University Central Athletic Club (DUCAC).[145]

The Central Athletic Club is made up of five committees that oversee the development of sport in the college: the Executive Committee which is responsible overall for all activities, the Captains' Committee which represents the 49 club captains and awards University Colours (Pinks), the Pavilion Bar Committee which runs the private members' bar, the Pavilion Members' Committee and the Sports Facilities Committee.

The oldest clubs include the Dublin University Cricket Club (1835)[146] and the Dublin University Boat Club (1836).[147] Dublin University Football Club, founded in 1854, plays rugby union and is the world's oldest documented "football club". Dublin University A.F.C., founded in 1883, is the oldest surviving association football club in the Republic of Ireland.[148][149][150][151] The Dublin University Hockey Club was founded in 1893,[152] and the Dublin University Harriers and Athletic Club in 1885.[153]

The newest club in the university is the American football team, who were accepted into the Irish American Football League (IAFL) in 2008. The Dublin University Fencing Club has won a total of 43 titles in 66 years.[154] While the modern DU Fencing Club was founded in 1936, its origins can be dated to the 1700s when a 'Gentleman's Club of the Sword' existed, primarily for duelling practice.[155]


Trinity College has a tradition of student publications, ranging from the serious to the satirical. Most student publications are administered by Trinity Publications, previously called the Dublin University Publications Committee (often known as 'Pubs'), which maintains and administers the Publications office (located in No 6) and all the associated equipment needed to publish newspapers and magazines.[156]

There are two rival student newspapers: The University Times and Trinity News. Trinity News, is Ireland's oldest student newspaper, having been founded in 1953. The University Times is funded by the Students' Union and has won national and international awards since its inception in 2009, including the award for best non-daily student newspaper in the world from the US-based Society of Professional Journalists.[157] Trinity News, on the other hand, is Ireland's oldest student newspaper, launched in 1953. It publishes both an online edition and a print edition every three weeks during the academic year. For the last 10 years the paper has been edited by a full-time student editor, who takes a sabbatical year from their studies, supported by a voluntary part-time staff of 30 student section editors and writers.

Student magazines currently in publication include the satirical newspaper The Piranha (formerly Piranha! magazine but rebranded in 2009),[158] the generalist T.C.D. Miscellany (founded in 1895; one of Ireland's oldest magazines),[159] the film journal Trinity Film Review (TFR)[160] and the literary Icarus.[161] Other publications include the Student Economic Review[162] and the Trinity College Law Review,[163] produced independently by students of economics and law respectively, the Trinity College Journal of Postgraduate Research, produced by the Graduate Students Union,[164] the Social and Political Review (SPR),[165] the Trinity Student Medical Journal,[166] The Attic, student writing produced by the Dublin University Literary Society.[167] More recent publications include the reactionary magazine The Burkean Journal; a politically and culturally conservative magazine named after one of Trinity's most notable alumni, Edmund Burke.[168][169][170]

The Trinity Ball

Trinity College Commencements

The Trinity Ball is an annual event that draws 7,000 attendants.[171] Until 2010, it was held annually on the last teaching day of Trinity term to celebrate the end of lectures and the beginning of Trinity Week. Due to a restructuring of the teaching terms of the college the 2010 Ball was held on the last day of Trinity Week. In 2011, the ball was held on the final day of teaching of Hilary Term, before the commencement of Trinity Week. The Ball is run by Trinity Ents, Trinity Students' Union and Trinity's Central Societies Committee in conjunction with event promoters MCD Productions, who held the contract to run the Ball until 2012.[172] The Ball celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2009.[173]

Students' Union

The Students' Union's primary role is to provide a recognised representative channel between undergraduates and the university and college authorities. The Campaigns Executive, the Administrative Executive and Sabbatical Officers manage the business and affairs of the Union. The Sabbatical Officers are: The President, Communications Officer, Welfare Officer, Education Officer and Entertainments Officer and are elected on an annual basis; all capitated students are entitled to vote. The SU President, Welfare Officer and Education Officer are ex-officio members of the College Board.

The Graduate Students' Union's primary role is to provide a recognised representative channel between postgraduates and the university and college authorities.[174] The GSU president is an ex-officio member of the College Board.

Traditions and culture


The Old Dining Hall

Commons is a three course meal served in the College Dining Hall Monday to Friday, attended by Scholars and Fellows and Sizars of the college, as well as other members of the college community and their guests.

Commons starts at 18:15 during the week, and its start is signalled by a dramatic slamming of the Dining Hall doors. The bell of the Campanile in the college is rung at 18:00 to inform those attending the dinner.

A Latin Grace is said "before and after dinner", read by one of the scholars.[175]

Grace Latin English
Ante Prandium
(Before Dinner)
Oculi omnium in te sperant Domine. Tu das iis escam eorum in tempore opportuno. Aperis tu manum tuam, et imples omne animal benedictione tua. Miserere nostri te quaesumus Domine, tuisque donis, quae de tua benignitate sumus percepturi, benedicito per Christum Dominum nostrum. The eyes of all hope in thee, O Lord. Thou givest them meat in due season. Thou openest thy hand, and fillest with blessing every living creature. Have mercy on us, we beseech thee, O Lord, and bless thy gifts, which from thy kindness we are about to receive, through Christ our Lord.
Post Prandium
(After Dinner)
Tibi laus, tibi honor, tibi gloria, O beata et gloriosa Trinitas. Sit nomen Domini benedictum et nunc et in perpetuum. Laudamus te, benignissime Pater, pro serenissimis, regina Elizabetha hujus Collegii conditrice, Jacobo ejusdem munificentissimo auctore, Carolo conservatore, ceterisque benefactoribus nostris, rogantes te, ut his tuis donis recte et ad tuam gloriam utentes in hoc saeculo, te una cum fidelibus in futuro feliciter perfruamur, per Christum Dominum nostrum. To thee be praise, to thee be honour, to thee be glory, O blessed and glorious Trinity. Blessed be the name of the Lord now and forever. We praise thee, most gracious Father, for the most serene ones, Queen Elizabeth the foundress of this college, James its most munificent builder, Charles its preserver, and our other benefactors. Asking thee, as we make use of these thy gifts rightly and for thy glory at this time, that we might exalt in thee together with the faithful happily in the future, through Christ our Lord.

During Advent, members of the Chapel Choir sing Christmas Carols to accompany the meals.[176]

Trinity Week

Trinity Week begins each year on Trinity Monday in mid-April.[177]

The start of Trinity Week is marked by the election of Fellows and Scholars to the College on Trinity Monday. The board of the college, having chosen the new Scholars (those who achieved a First in the Foundation Scholarship) and Fellows,[178] announce in front square those appointed, before an ecumenical service is held in the College Chapel, with music sung by the Chapel Choir.[179]

Other traditions

There is a long-standing rivalry with nearby University College Dublin, which is largely friendly in nature.[180] Every year, Colours events are contested between the sporting clubs of each University.

Most students of the college (undergraduates especially) never walk underneath the Campanile, as the tradition suggests that should the bell ring whilst they pass under it, they will fail their annual examinations. This is negated only if they touch the foot of the statue of George Salmon within five seconds of the bell ringing.[181]

In popular culture

Parts of Michael Collins,[182] The First Great Train Robbery,[183] Circle of Friends,[184] Educating Rita,[185] Ek Tha Tiger[186] and Quackser Fortune Has a Cousin in the Bronx[187] were filmed in Trinity College. It served as the filming location for Luftwaffe headquarters in The Blue Max.[188]

The Irish writer J. P. Donleavy was a student in Trinity.[189] A number of his books feature characters who attend Trinity, including The Ginger Man and The Beastly Beatitudes of Balthazar B.[190][191]

Fictional Naval Surgeon Stephen Maturin of Patrick O'Brian's popular Aubrey–Maturin series is a graduate of Trinity College.[192]

In the Channel 4 television series Hollyoaks, Craig Dean attends Trinity College. He left Hollyoaks to study in Ireland in 2007 and now lives there with his boyfriend, John Paul McQueen, after they got their sunset ending in September 2008.[193]

All Names Have Been Changed, a novel by Claire Kilroy, is set in Trinity College in the 1990s. The story follows a group of creative writing students and their enigmatic professor. A photograph of Trinity is used in the cover art.[194]

The First Verse by Barry McCrea is another novel with Trinity College as its setting. The narrative focuses on freshman Niall Lenihan's search for identity and companionship, along with detailing his involvement with mysticism at the college.[195]

In Karen Marie Moning's The Fever Series Trinity College is said to be where the main character, MacKayla Lane's sister Alina was attending school on scholarship before she was murdered. The college is also where several of the minor characters who inform Ms. Lane about her sister are said to work.[196]

In the novel Thanks for the Memories, written by Irish author Cecelia Ahern, Justin Hitchcock is a guest lecturer at Trinity College.[197]

The Oscar Wilde Memorial Sculpture in Dublin's Merrion Square depicts the poet wearing the Trinity College post graduate tie.[198]

In Sally Rooney's 2018 bestselling novel Normal People and its 2020 television adaptation, both the main characters, Connell Waldron and Marianne Sheridan, are students at Trinity College and are elected scholars.[199] Sally Rooney herself studied English as a scholar in Trinity.[200] In the television adaptation, Connell is played by former Trinity College (The Lir Academy) student Paul Mescal; two other actors in the series, Frank Blake (who played Marianne's older brother Alan) and Kwaku Fortune (who played Philip, a friend of Marianne's at Trinity), are also alumni of the Lir Academy.[201] Series director and executive producer Lenny Abrahamson studied philosophy at Trinity and was also elected a scholar.[202] Following the broadcast of the series, Trinity was widely reported to have received a substantial increase in applications, totalling over 40,000, including a small increase in applications from the United Kingdom.[203]

Notable people

Amongst the past students/graduates (and some staff) are included notable people such as:

Others include four previous holders of the office of President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde, Éamon de Valera, Mary Robinson and Mary McAleese, and two holders of the office of Taoiseach, Éamon de Valera, and Leo Varadkar. (Éamon de Valera matriculated as "Edward de Valera")

See also


  1. ^ Extracts from Letters Patent ("First or Foundation Charter") of Elizabeth I, 1592: "...we...found and establish a College, mother of a (the) University, near the town of Dublin for the better education, training and instruction of Anglo-Protestant scholars and students in our realm...and also that provision should be made...for the relief and support of a provost and some fellows and shall be called THE COLLEGE OF THE HOLY AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY NEAR DUBLIN FOUNDED BY THE MOST SERENE QUEEN ELIZABETH."
  2. ^ Trinity Hall which houses 1,100 students, of whom the majority are first years.


  1. ^ "Division – College" (PDF). The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin. Trinity College, Dublin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  2. ^ "Ionaid agus seoltaí – Oifig na Gaeilge : Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Ireland" . Trinity College. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ a b "Speech at Vietnam National University: Entrepreneurship-Innovation-Research: the education mission at Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin" . Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Breaking down Trinity's shield" . "The name is, of course, a reference to the Christian doctrine that defines God as three consubstantial entities (via a tribute to Trinity College, Cambridge)." The Irish Times. 5 April 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2016. The Trinity was the patron of The Dublin Guild Merchant, primary instigators of the foundation of the University, the arms of which guild are also similar to those of the College.
  6. ^ . Trinity College, Dublin. 10 April 2021 . Retrieved 1 August 2021. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ a b c "Full-time enrolments in Universities in the academic year 2016/2017" . Higher Education Authority Statistics Archive. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  8. ^ a b c "Part-time enrolments in Universities in the academic year 2016/2017" . Higher Education Authority Statistics Archive. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "History - About Trinity" . Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  10. ^ a b "The History of Trinity College" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  11. ^ "TCD Corporate and Legal FAQ" . 30 May 2018.
  12. ^ Sarah Hutton (15 May 2015). British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century . Oxford University Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-0-19-958611-0.
  13. ^ Grabham, Sue (1995). "Republic of Ireland Introduction". Encyclopedia of Lands & Peoples. London: Kingfisher. p. 39. ISBN 1-85697-292-5.
  14. ^ D'Arcy, Ciarán; McGreevy, Ronan. "Trinity back on elite university list after 'really stupid' error" . The Irish Times.
  15. ^ a b c "Faculties and Schools" . Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  16. ^ "Entry Requirements for International Students - Study - Trinity College Dublin" .
  17. ^ "Trinity College, Dublin - Courage – Connecting collections" .
  18. ^ Catherine, Fanning. "Trinity College Dublin - The University of Dublin" . Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  19. ^ a b O'Neill, Sean; Hamilton, Fiona (17 June 2005). "Professor A. Norman Jeffares. Prolific scholar who specialised in W. B. Yeats and Irish literature while energetically espousing Commonwealth writers" . The Times. London.
  20. ^ a b "Church of Ireland Notes from The Irish Times" . 19 November 2005. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  22. ^ Hermans, Jos M. M.; Nelissen, Marc (21 January 2018). Charters of Foundation and Early Documents of the Universities of the Coimbra Group . Leuven University Press. ISBN 9789058674746. Retrieved 21 January 2018 – via Google Books.
  23. ^ "CATHOLICS AND TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN. (Hansard, 8 May 1834)" .
  24. ^ Pašeta, Senia (1998). "Trinity College, Dublin, and the Education of Irish Catholics, 1873-1908" . Studia Hibernica (30): 7–20.
  25. ^ Robert Brendan McDowell; David Allardice Webb (1982). Trinity College, Dublin, 1592–1952: An Academic History . Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23931-8.
  26. ^ "The Long Room Library at Trinity College" . Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  27. ^ a b "History of the Library - The Library of Trinity College Dublin - Trinity College Dublin" .
  28. ^ a b "Old Library" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  29. ^ a b "Trinity College Dublin - Topuniversities" . Top Universities. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  30. ^ a b "Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin" . Top Universities. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  31. ^ London: Newman, Cardinal Henry; The Rise and Progress of Universities, Chapter 17 (The Ancient University of Dublin), 207–212
  32. ^ "Archived copy" . Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "Legal FAQ - Secretary's Office - Trinity College Dublin" . Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  34. ^ "Catholic Relief Act, 1793, section 13" .
  35. ^ The Times, Important Collegiate Question., Denis C. Heron 13 December 1845; pg3 col E
  36. ^ The Times; Ireland. Protestant Alliance; 9 January 1846; pg5 col D
  37. ^ L'Estrange, Robert Augustus Henry (1900). "Queen Victoria's Royal visit to Dublin, Ireland, 4th April - 26th April, 1900" . Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  38. ^ Rayner-Canham, Marelene F. (2008). Chemistry was their life : pioneering British women chemists, 1880-1949 . Geoffrey Rayner-Canham. London: Imperial College Press. p. 560. ISBN 978-1-86094-987-6. OCLC 665046168 .
  39. ^ "Soldiers are we" by Charles Townshend, History Today, 1 April 2006, p163-164
  40. ^ McDowell, R.B (1997). Crisis and Decline - the Fate of the Southern Unionists. Dublin: The Lilliput Press. p. 173. ISBN 1-874675-92-9.
  41. ^ Murray, Peter; Feeney, Maria (2016). Church, state and social science in Ireland: Knowledge institutions and the rebalancing of power, 1937–73 . Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9781526100788.
  42. ^ McCarthy, Eamonn (22 January 2000). "Soline Vatinel, The Archbishop and Me" . B.A.S.I.C. Brothers and Sisters in Christ Praying and Working for the Ordination of Women in the Roman Catholic Church. Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  43. ^ "" . 12 March 2010. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  44. ^ O'Malley, Donogh (1997). "The Free Post Primary Education Scheme" (PDF). Maynooth University. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  45. ^ a b c Book (eISB), electronic Irish Statute. "electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB)" . Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  46. ^ Dublin, Provost & President, Trinity College. "Thomas Noel Mitchell - Provost & President : Trinity College Dublin" . Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  47. ^ "TCD Strategic Plan 2006" (PDF). Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  48. ^ "About - Hamilton Mathematics Institute" . Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  49. ^ O'Brien, Carl; McGreevy, Ronan. "Trinity College Dublin names Linda Doyle as first woman provost in 429 years" . The Irish Times. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  50. ^ Ardill, Lisa (12 April 2021). "Who is Linda Doyle, the newly elected provost of Trinity College Dublin?" . Silicon Republic. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  51. ^ "Trinity College Dublin (TCD) - Fateh Education - DRLP-16" . Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  52. ^ "The World's Most Beautiful College Campuses" . Forbes.
  53. ^ Kennedy, John (22 November 2018). "Trinity College Dublin reveals €230m blueprint for the campus of the future" . Silicon Republic. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  54. ^ Dublin, New Website, Trinity College. "History - About Trinity : Trinity College Dublin" . Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  55. ^ "Chaplaincy - Trinity College Dublin" . Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  56. ^ "Sphere within Sphere" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  57. ^ a b "Legal Deposit - The Library of Trinity College Dublin" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  58. ^ a b "Finsing your Library" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  59. ^ Power, Jack. "Taoiseach opens new €80m Trinity business school" . The Irish Times. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  60. ^ "Ireland's new Prime Minister Leo Varadkar is a 'real global Indian', says family back home-World News , Firstpost" . Firstpost. 3 June 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  61. ^ "Trinity Business School" . Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  62. ^ . Trinity College, Dublin. 10 April 2021 . Retrieved 1 August 2021. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  63. ^ a b "The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. p. 43. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  64. ^ "The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. p. 53. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  65. ^ "The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. p. 46. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  66. ^ "The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. pp. 58–65. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  67. ^ a b "Foundation Scholarship FAQ" . Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  68. ^ a b "The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. p. 5. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  69. ^ "The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. p. 67.
  70. ^ Book (eISB), electronic Irish Statute. "electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB)" . Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  71. ^ "The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. p. 75. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  72. ^ "The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. p. 158. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  73. ^ "Microsoft Word - Statutes-Current.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  74. ^ "The 2010 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College Dublin and of the University of Dublin" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. pp. 168–171. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  75. ^ "Role of the Chancellor" . Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  76. ^ "Statute X: Degrees, Diplomas, and Certificates" . Statutes and Regulations, University of Oxford .
  77. ^ "Teaching and Affiliated Hospitals (Medicine)" . Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  78. ^ "About Us" . Royal Irish Academy of Music. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  79. ^ "Home - Marino Institute of Education" . Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  80. ^ "Trinity and Church of Ireland Theological Institute sign MOU" . Trinity College Dublin. 6 September 2018. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  81. ^ The Unreformed House of Commons: Parliamentary Representation Before 1832. 1903. p. 367.
  82. ^ "University Senators" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  83. ^ Trinity College Academic Calendar. (12 weeks each), followed by three revision weeks and a four-week exam period.
  84. ^ "Trinity Regatta – Dublin University Boat Club" . Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  85. ^ "Trinity Walton Club" .
  86. ^ Madden, Shelly (18 September 2017). "Trinity Walton Club: Putting students in the driving seat" . Silicon Republic.
  87. ^ a b "Teens develop robot to teach children basics of coding" .
  88. ^ a b "Building a New Generation of Scientific Innovators" .
  89. ^ "Trinity Walton Club" .
  90. ^ Meehan, Sarah (28 November 2017). "Undergraduate name "Freshman" to change to gender-neutral "Fresh"" . Trinity News. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  91. ^ Faller, Grainne. "How to make the grade" . The Irish Times. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  92. ^ "Dual BA Program - Trinity College Dublin" .
  93. ^ "Graduate Studies – Trinity College Dublin" . 15 April 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  94. ^ "" . 12 November 2009. Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  95. ^ "Evening & Short Courses" . Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  96. ^ a b Noone, Bridget. "Entrepreneurship at Trinity College" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  97. ^ Undergraduate Admissions. "Admission Requirements" .
  98. ^ Undergraduate Admissions (Email). "Admission Requirements" (PDF).
  99. ^ Undergraduate Admissions (Email). "Matriculation Examination Syllabus" (PDF).
  100. ^ Central Applications Office. "Restricted-Application Courses" .
  101. ^ Undergraduate Admissions (Email) (26 February 2010). "A list of EU exams and conversion ratios" . Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  102. ^ "Increase in CAO Applications for Trinity Courses for 2016" . Trinity College Dublin. 9 March 2016. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  103. ^ "TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN Profile 2016/2017" (PDF). HEA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  104. ^ "" . Archived from the original on 28 February 2009.
  105. ^ "" . Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  106. ^ a b "Japan" . Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  107. ^ "Trinity Foundation Programme, Trinity College, University of Dublin" . I.F.U (in Japanese). 9 November 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  108. ^ "Postgraduate - How to Apply" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  109. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  110. ^ "58 Scholars, 15 Fellows and Two Honorary Fellows Elected" . The University Times.
  111. ^ "List of scholars - Scholars - TCD" . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  112. ^ a b c d e "History of Scholars - Scholars - TCD" . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  113. ^ "Trinity College Dublin, Calendar, Undergraduate Studies Part II, Part D9, Foundation and Non-Foundation Scholarships" (PDF).
  114. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020" . Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  115. ^ "World University Rankings 2020-2021" . Center for World University Rankingsg. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  116. ^ "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2020 - PP top 10%" . CWTS Leiden Ranking. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  117. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2022" . Top Universities. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  118. ^ "World University Rankings" . Times Higher Education. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  119. ^ "Best Global Universities Rankings (2021)" . U.S. News Education. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  120. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2022" . Top Universities. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  121. ^ "Trinity College Dublin World University Rankings | THE" . Times Higher Education. 22 February 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  122. ^ "TCD and UCD drop lower in world university rankings" . The Irish Times. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  123. ^ "QS World University Rankings® 2017/18" . Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  124. ^ "TCD launches €600m plan to break back into world elite" . The Irish Independent. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  125. ^ "ARWU World University Rankings® 2017" . Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  126. ^ "Times ranking all years - Trinity College Dublin - Results |" . Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  127. ^ "QS Ranking all years - Trinity College Dublin - Results |" . Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  128. ^ "Join a Society" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  129. ^ "TCD Societies Guide 2020" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  130. ^ a b "Calendar 2016-Students' Unions, Societies and Clubs" (PDF). Trinity College Dublin. 5 October 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  131. ^ "Philosophical Society (The Phil)" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  132. ^ "College Historical Society (The Hist)" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  133. ^ "Vincent de Paul" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  134. ^ "Players" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  135. ^ "Film Society" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  136. ^ "Trinity FM" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  137. ^ "Q Soc - Trinity LGBT" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  138. ^ "Card & Bridge Society" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  139. ^ "Comedy Soc" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  140. ^ "" . 25 March 2010. Archived from the original on 29 October 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  141. ^ "Dance" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  142. ^ "Trinity News, Trinity Archive, 1 Nov. 2005, p. 20" (PDF). Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  143. ^ "Laurentian Society" . Central Societies Committee. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  144. ^ "Society | Central Societies Committee" . Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  145. ^ "DUCAC – Trinity Sport – Trinity College Dublin" . 24 June 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  146. ^ "Archived copy" . Archived from the original on 26 October 2005. Retrieved 30 September 2005.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  147. ^ "Archived copy" . Archived from the original on 28 October 2005. Retrieved 30 September 2005.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  148. ^ Byrne, Peter (1996). Football Association of Ireland: 75 years. Dublin: Sportsworld. ISBN 1-900110-06-7.
  149. ^ Garnham, Neal (2004). Association Football and society in pre-partition Ireland. Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation. ISBN 1-903688-34-5.
  150. ^ Byrne, Peter (2012). Green Is The Colour: The Story of Irish Football. Andre Deutsch.
  151. ^ The Bold Collegians, Trevor West, 1991, Dublin University Press
  152. ^ "DUHC" . Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  153. ^ Brian Foley. "Dublin University Harriers and Athletic Club" . Archived from the original on 21 January 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  154. ^ "Dublin University Fencing Club Crowned Intervarsity Champions for the Thirteenth Year in a Row" . Trinity College Dublin. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  155. ^ "Dublin University Fencing Club – Club News" . Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  156. ^ "Trinity Publications" . 27 January 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  157. ^ "About The University Times" . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  158. ^ "The Piranha" . Trinity Publication. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  159. ^ "MISC. | Trinity Publications" . 28 January 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  160. ^ "Trinity Film Review | Trinity Publications" . 28 January 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  161. ^ "Icarus | Trinity Publications" . 28 January 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  162. ^ "Student Economic Review" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  163. ^ "About Us | Trinity College Law Review (TCLR)" . Trinity College Law Review (TCLR) | Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  164. ^ "About the Journal | Trinity Postgraduate Review Journal" . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  165. ^ "Welcome to The Social and Political Review of Trinity College Dublin" . Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  166. ^ Dublin Life (Email) (26 August 2009). "" . Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  167. ^ "The Attic - Trinity College Dublin Literary Society" . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  168. ^ "Archived copy" . Archived from the original on 1 January 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  169. ^ "The Burkean's Mission Has Changed. Conservatives Are Right to Worry" . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  170. ^ "About" . The Burkean. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  171. ^ Paul Cullen (4 April 2010). "Old square hits Front Square" . The Irish Times. By 11 pm, only a fraction of the 7,000 ticketholders have filtered through the security checks.
  172. ^ Conor Sneyd. "Havin' such a good time, havin' a Ball?" . The University Times. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. The contract with MCD for the running of the Ball is due to expire in 2012
  173. ^ "Trinity Ball 2009" . Retrieved 10 July 2009.
  174. ^ The Graduate Students' Union. "Information: The Graduate Students' Union" . The Graduate Students' Union. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  175. ^ "Commons Information - Scholars - TCD" . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  176. ^ "Chaplaincy" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  177. ^ "Trinity Week" . Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  178. ^ "58 Scholars, 15 Fellows and Two Honorary Fellows Elected" . The University Times.
  179. ^ "Traditional Events - Trinity Week" . Trinity College Dublin.
  180. ^ "Why do we hate UCD so much (and vice versa)?" . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  181. ^ "Ten Things You Might Not Know About Trinity College Dublin" . Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  182. ^ Kevin Rockett. "Michael Collins (1996)" . Shot at Trinity. Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  183. ^ David Ingoldsby. "The Great Train Robbery (1978)" . Shot at Trinity. Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  184. ^ Ruth Barton. "Circle of Friends (1995)" . Shot at Trinity. Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  185. ^ Conolly, Jez; Whelan, Caroline (2011). World Film Locations: Dublin . Bristol: Intellect Books. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-84150-550-3. ISSN 2045-9009 .
  186. ^ "Salman Khan and Katrina Kaif to go back to college" . Bollywood Hungama. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  187. ^ Aidan Delaney. "Quackser Fortune Has a Cousin in the Bronx (1970)" . Shot at Trinity. Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  188. ^ "Shot at Trinity" . Trinity College Dublin. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  189. ^ Dunn, Bill. "JP Donleavy: Pioneering writer who fought and won battles against censorship" . The Irish Times. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  190. ^ "The Ginger Man" . The Lilliput Press. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  191. ^ "The Beastly Beatitudes of Balthazar B" . The Lilliput Press. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  192. ^ Brown, Anthony Gary (2006). The Patrick O'Brian Muster book : persons, animals, ships and cannon in the Aubrey-Maturin sea novels (2nd ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., Publishers. ISBN 0-7864-2482-6. OCLC 64688467 .
  193. ^ Green, Kris (9 June 2008). "Craig Dean returns to 'Hollyoaks'" . Digital Spy. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  194. ^ Greenland, Colin (7 August 2009). "All Names Have Been Changed by Claire Kilroy" . The Guardian. London. ISSN 0261-3077 . OCLC 60623878 . Retrieved 24 July 2012. Trini
  195. ^ 1974-, McCrea, Barry (2005). The first verse : a novel (1st Carroll & Graf ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0786715138. OCLC 60345313 .CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  196. ^ Moning, Karen Marie (12 January 2016). The Fever Series 7-Book Bundle: Darkfever, Bloodfever, Faefever, Dreamfever, Shadowfever, Iced, Burned . Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-101-96860-4.
  197. ^ "Reviews: Thanks for the Memories" . Archived from the original on 6 July 2011.
  198. ^ Smith, Sarah. "Sculpting Irishness: a discussion of Dublin's commemorative statues of Oscar Wilde and Phil Lynott" . Sculpture Journal. 21 (1): 71–82. ISSN 1366-2724 .
  199. ^ "Normal People" . Public Store View.
  200. ^ McCarthy, Clare. "10 things in Sally Rooney's Normal People that only Irish people understand" . The Irish Post. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  201. ^ "Paul Mescal" . The Lir Academy. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  202. ^ "Commercials Directors | The Irish Film & Television Network" . Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  203. ^ O'Brien, Carl (10 July 2020). "Trinity gets 'Normal People bounce' with record application numbers" . The Irish Times. Retrieved 9 August 2021.

Further reading

  • Auchmuty, James Johnston. Sir Thomas Wyse, 1791-1862: the life and career of an educator and diplomat (PS King & sons, 1939).
  • Bailey, Kenneth Claude A History of Trinity College Dublin, 1892-1945 (Trinity College Dublin, 1947).
  • Black, R. D. "Trinity College, Dublin, and the theory of value, 1832-1863." Economica 12.47 (1945): 140-148 online .
  • Bewley, Dame Beulah. "Ireland's first school of medicine" History Ireland 19.4 (2011): 24-27 online
  • Dixon, William Macneile. Trinity College, Dublin. (F.E. Robinson, 1902) online
  • Finn, Gerry P.T. "Trinity Mysteries: University, Elite Schooling and Sport in Ireland" International Journal of the History of Sport (2010) 27#13 pp 2255–2287. covers 1800 to 1970.
  • Fox, Peter. Trinity College Library Dublin: A History (Cambridge UP, 2014).
  • Gogarty, Claire. "Building Finances of Trinity College, Dublin, in the Early Eighteenth Century." Dublin Historical Record 50#1 (1997): 71-75. online .
  • Harford, Judith. The opening of university education to women in Ireland (Irish Academic Press, 2008).
  • Irish, Tomás. "Trinity College Dublin: An Imperial University in War and Revolution, 1914–1921." in The Academic World in the Era of the Great War (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018) pp. 119–139.
  • Jackson, P. S. Wyse. "The botanic garden of Trinity college Dublin 1687 to 1987." Botanical journal of the Linnean Society 95.4 (1987): 301-311.
  • Kelly, Laura. Irish medical education and student culture, c. 1850-1950 (Oxford UP, 2018).
  • Kirkpatrick, T. Percy C. History of the medical teaching in Trinity College Dublin and of the School of Physic in Ireland (Hanna and Neale, 1912) online .
  • Luce, John Victor, ed. Trinity College Dublin, the first 400 years (Trinity College Dublin quatercentenary series, 1992).
  • McDowell, Robert Brendan, and David Allardice Webb. Trinity College Dublin, 1592-1952: an academic history (Trinity College Dublin Press, 2004) online .
  • McGurk, John. "Trinity College, Dublin: 1592-1992." History Today 42.3 (1992): 41-47.
  • Mahaffy, John Pentland. An epoch in Irish history: Trinity College, Dublin, its foundation and early fortunes, 1591-1660 (T. Fisher Unwin, 1906) online .
  • Morris, Ewan. "'God Save the King' Versus 'The Soldier's Song': The 1929 Trinity College National Anthem Dispute and the Politics of the Irish Free State." Irish Historical Studies 31.121 (1998): 72-90 online .
  • Moss, Jean Dietz. "'Discordant Consensus': Old and New Rhetoric at Trinity College, Dublin." Rhetorica 14.4 (1996): 383-441.
  • O'Farrell, Fergus. "Trinity v. UCD." History Ireland 23.4 (2015): 48-49 online , student rivalry.
  • Parkes, Susan M., ed. A danger to the men?: a history of women in Trinity College Dublin 1904-2004 (Lilliput Press, 2004).
  • Pašeta, Senia. "Trinity College, Dublin, and the Education of Irish Catholics, 1873-1908." Studia Hibernica 30 (1998): 7-20 online .
  • Post, Robert M. "Forensic activities at Trinity college, Dublin, in the eighteenth century." Communication Studies 19.1 (1968): 19-25.
  • Raraty, M. M. "The Chair of German at Trinity College, Dublin 1775-1866." Hermathena (1966): 53-72 online .
  • Rembert, James A. W. "Dialectic at Trinity College, Dublin." in Swift and the Dialectical Tradition (Palgrave Macmillan, 1988) pp. 63–72. online
  • Stanford, William Bedell. "Classical Studies in Trinity College, Dublin, since the Foundation." Hermathena 57 (1941): 3-24. online
  • Urwick, William. The Early History of Trinity College Dublin 1591-1660: As Told in Contemporary Records on Occasion of Its Tercentenary (T. Fisher Unwin Paternoster Square, 1892) online .
  • Ussher, H. "Account of the Observatory Belonging to Trinity College, Dublin." Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 1 (1787): 3-21. online .
  • Walsh, John. "‘The problem of Trinity College Dublin’: a historical perspective on rationalisation in higher education in Ireland." Irish Educational Studies 33.1 (2014): 5-19.
  • Webb, David A. "The herbarium of Trinity College, Dublin: its history and contents." Botanical journal of the Linnean Society 106.4 (1991): 295-327.
  • West, Trevor. The bold collegians: the development of sport in Trinity College, Dublin (Lilliput Press in association with DUCAC, 1991).

External links


Information as of: 12.08.2021 12:13:47 CEST

Source: Wikipedia (Authors [History])    License of the text: CC-BY-SA-3.0. Creators and licenses of the individual images and media can either be found in the caption or can be displayed by clicking on the image.

Changes: Design elements were rewritten. Wikipedia specific links (like "Redlink", "Edit-Links"), maps, niavgation boxes were removed. Also some templates. Icons have been replaced by other icons or removed. External links have received an additional icon.

Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.
See also: Legal Notice & Privacy policy.