INSEAD is a non-profit, private university with locations in Europe (Fontainebleau, France), Asia (Singapore), the Middle East (Abu Dhabi, UAE), and North America (San Francisco, USA). Founded in 1957, INSEAD is an acronym for "Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires."[4] As a graduate-only business school, INSEAD offers a full-time Master of business administration, an Executive MBA (EMBA), a Master in Finance, a PhD in management, a Master in Management,[5] Business Foundations Post-Graduate degrees, and a variety of executive education programs.

Institut européen d'administration des affaires
MottoThe Business School for the World
TypePrivate business school
Endowment€282 million[1]
ChairmanAndreas Jacobs[2]
DeanIlian Mihov[3]
Academic staff
(~1,000 in MBA)
(~300 EMBA)
(~30 MFin)
(80 in Ph.D.)

INSEAD is known for its MBA program, which is taught in English and consistently ranked among the best in the world.[6][7] Its MBA program has produced the second most CEOs of the 500 largest companies globally, only after Harvard Business School’s,[8] and the sixth most billionaires among MBA programs globally.[9] The MBA program has also educated three heads of state.[10][11]

INSEAD is among the top 20 universities that produce the most millionaires globally,[12] and among top 15 for most individuals with net worths of more than 30 million dollars[13] despite its relatively small size as a specialist university. INSEAD alumni include the CEOs/Chairpeople of Credit Suisse, BP, Diageo, Ericsson, WPP, Lloyds Banking Group, LEGO, Philip Morris International and founders of L'Occitane, Octapharma, TransferWise, MongoDB, BlaBlaCar and Business Insider.

INSEAD was founded in France in 1957 by Georges Doriot, a French-American professor at Harvard Business School, and his two students, Claude Janssen and Olivier Giscard d'Estaing. In 2000, the school opened another teaching facility in Singapore. In 2012, INSEAD became a founding member of the Sorbonne University Alliance, moving toward a merger with leading specialist institutions in other fields to create a top-tier multidisciplinary university.

Known for its high degree of internationalism, INSEAD admits no more than 12% of students of the same nationality[14] and requires each student to speak two languages on entry and three languages by graduation.[15]



Château de Fontainebleau

INSEAD was founded in 1957 by venture capitalist Georges Doriot[16] Claude Janssen, and Olivier Giscard d'Estaing. Original seed money was provided by the Paris Chamber of Commerce.[17] The school was originally based in the Château de Fontainebleau, before moving to its current Europe campus in 1967.[18]

Georges Doriot, a professor at Harvard Business School and a General in US Army during World War II, had been always thinking about an institution that introduces business education to Europe and brings European businessmen together post-war. In 1955, he presented his idea of creating a new school of management and business administration to the Paris Chamber of Commerce, whose presidents, Jean Marcou and Philippe Dennis, became presidents of the school . The welcoming ceremony of the first promotion for the Master of Business Administration at the Château de Fontainebleau is held on September 12, 1959. Almost 110 candidates had applied, 62 were admitted and 57 attended the first course. The official inauguration takes place on October 9, 1959, still at the Château de Fontainebleau 5.

From day one, INSEAD emphasizes cross-cultural understanding and business co-operation. It imposes a quota on percentage of students with the same nationality which it keeps until now. Proficiency in multiple languages is also considered a critical enabler to achieve such goal. Initial classes were taught in 3 languages: English, French and German, interchangeably. Until 1990s, classes could still be taught in either of the 3 languages. As of now, all classes are taught in English but the school still requires students to know any 3 languages as a requirement for graduation.


  • 1957: INSEAD founded[19] as the first business school outside the US
  • 1959: First MBA intake in Fontainebleau and first business school to offer a one-year MBA program
  • 1967: Opening of the school's first campus on the edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau (now called the 'Europe Campus')
  • 1968: First Executive Education programme
  • 1976: Launch of the INSEAD Alumni Fund
  • 1989: Launch of the PhD programme
  • 1995: Launch of the first INSEAD Development Campaign,[20] which raised funds for permanently endowed chairs and research
  • 2000: First business school with full campuses on multiple continents, with the Asia Campus opening in Singapore[21]
  • 2001: Announcement of the INSEAD-Wharton Alliance[22] and first MBA participant exchanges
  • 2003: Launch of the Executive MBA programme
  • 2007: INSEAD Centre opened in Abu Dhabi, primarily for research and executive education; launch of a dual degree Executive MBA with Tsinghua University in China[23]
  • 2013: MBA participant exchange agreement with CEIBS launched[24]
  • 2015: Inauguration of the Leadership Development Center in Singapore[25]
  • 2016: First and only business school to achieve a ‘triple first’ in rankings – MBA, Executive MBA (Tsinghua-INSEAD EMBA) and Single School Executive MBA (INSEAD GEMBA) in the Financial Times 2016 rankings
  • 2018: Launch of the Hoffmann Global Institute for Business and Society[26][27]
  • 2020: Opening of the INSEAD San Francisco Hub for Business Innovation


The original campus (Europe campus) is located in Fontainebleau, near Paris, France. INSEAD's second campus (Asia campus) is in the one-north district of the city-state of Singapore next to one-north MRT station. The third and newest campus (Middle East campus) is located in Abu Dhabi. Although located in Europe and Asia, INSEAD pursues the US model of a business school.[28] INSEAD has been a pioneer in setting up a multi-campus business school as a way to increase the global presence and nature of its faculty and curriculum.[29][30] A Harvard Business School case study, for instance, explores its approach to business education in a global context and how it functions with a multi-campus setting.[31]

Degree programmes

Business Foundations Programme

INSEAD in collaboration with Sorbonne Université offers the Dual Degree: Business Foundations (BFC) programme which is one of INSEAD's most selective degrees. "BFC" is tailored for recent master or PhD graduates from the sciences, medicine, humanities, engineering and law. The programme equips participants with a broad set of business and economics skills that optimally complement their graduate training. It also supports participants' transition to a business career and helps aspiring entrepreneurs to fulfil the goal of their own start-up by complementing their ideas with a foundation in business and leadership. Both Universities offer fellowships to selected students.

MBA programme

INSEAD's MBA participants can take the MBA's core courses at either or both of its Europe and Asia campuses[32] (as well as an MBA period at its Middle East campus). They follow the same core courses in parallel regardless of campus, and there are faculty who teach on both the Europe and Asia campuses as well as permanent faculty at each of the three campuses who live and work in the respective regions.[33] Approximately 20% of the class entered the MBA program with other graduate or professional degrees; including medical doctors, lawyers, and Ph.Ds.

INSEAD offers two MBA schedules per year: one starting in September which takes ten months to complete, and a 12-month promotion starting in January for students who want to complete a summer internship.[34]

The INSEAD MBA curriculum comprises required core courses and electives. The core covers traditional management disciplines including finance, economics, organizational behavior, accounting, ethics, marketing, statistics, operations management, international political environment, public policy, supply chain management, leadership and corporate strategy. There are 75 electives on offer[35] in areas such as accounting and control, decision sciences, economics and political science, entrepreneurship and family enterprise, finance, and organisational behavior, strategy, marketing, technology and operations management. Students are required to speak two languages upon entry and a third by graduation.

Executive MBA programme

INSEAD has two EMBA Executive MBA programmes. The Global Executive MBA (GEMBA),[36] and the Tsinghua INSEAD EMBA (TIEMBA).[37] Both EMBA programmes are master's-level degree programmes that take place on a part-time, modular basis.

The programmes offer experienced business executives an intensive 14–17-month modular course that takes place in modular periods (approximately every six to seven weeks). Each period on campus is between one and two weeks' duration. For the GEMBA programme the physical time on campus represents 12 weeks in total with participants going to all three campuses (Fontainebleau, France, Abu Dhabi, and Singapore). For the TIEMBA programme the physical time on campus represents 12 weeks in total with participants alternating between Tsinghua's campus in Beijing, China,[38] and INSEAD's campus in Singapore.

Both the GEMBA and TIEMBA programmes include a schedule of group coaching, 360-degree assessments and team activities designed to develop a leadership style, called the Leadership Development Programme.[39]

Executive Master in Coaching and Consulting for Change

The Executive Master in Coaching and Consulting for Change is a specialized master's degree. It provides a grounding in basic drivers of human behavior and the hidden dynamics of organizations. Integrating business education with a range of psychological disciplines, the programme enables participants to understand themselves and others at a fundamental level, which prepares them to assume roles in organisations, individual and organizational development and change management.[40][41]

Master in Finance

INSEAD's Master in Finance (MFin) teaches participants finance and accounting skills on a par with those taught in an MBA programme, and also offers leadership and management perspectives. The program is offered in a modular format over a 20-month period to allow professionals to study while continuing to work. Participants take time off from work for each of the six modules (2–3 weeks each) to take classes on campus, and continue working in between.[42]

PhD programme

The INSEAD PhD in Management is a doctoral degree in business to prepare students for a career in academia. It requires four to five years of full-time study - the first two years devoted to coursework, while from the third and fourth (or sometimes fifth) years dedicated to research and dissertation.[43] Students have the option to start their studies on either the Asia (Singapore) or Europe (France) campus,[44] and do an exchange in North America (USA) through the INSEAD-Wharton Alliance.[45] There are eight areas of specialization: Accounting, Decision Sciences, Entrepreneurship, Finance, Marketing, Organisational Behavior, Strategy, and Technology and Operations Management.[46] INSEAD offers fellowships, whereby students receive full tuition fee waiver, annual stipend and research support funding.[47]

Master in Management (MIM)

This 14 to 16-month programme has an innovative learning approach with an applied problem-solving orientation. It aims to empower the next generation of well-rounded, agile-thinking and innovative individuals who are ready to make a positive impact in today's society.

Executive education

INSEAD holds both company/firm specific and open enrolment executive education programmes at its locations in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and North America, as well as in partnership with corporate universities. Participants usually come from senior or top management, with many years of experience within their company or industry and younger 'high-potentials' identified as being key in succession strategies within their companies. Approximately 12,000 executives from over 125 countries undertake courses or programmes at INSEAD each year.[48]

In 2011, INSEAD launched an Executive Certificate in Global Management which is a formal recognition awarded to participants who complete at least three INSEAD global management and leadership programmes within a four-year period.[49]

Rankings, reputation and controversy

Business school rankings
Worldwide overall
Worldwide MBA
Business Insider[51]6
Financial Times[52]1
INSEAD position in Financial Times Global Rankings
2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
MBA 1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st
Tsinghua—INSEAD EMBA (TIEMBA) 2nd 3rd 3rd 9th 5th N/A
INSEAD Global EMBA (GEMBA) 4th 8th 13th 19th 9th N/A

INSEAD is consistently ranked among the world's top business schools. Its MBA program has been ranked 1st globally in 2021, 2017 and 2016 in the Financial Times Global MBA Ranking.[53] The dual degree Executive MBA with Tsinghua University is consistently ranked in the top 10 globally by the Financial Times.[54]

In 2018, INSEAD's 'Welcome Week', an elaborate 35-year-old tradition in which new students "were offered access to half a dozen student clubs on the condition they proved their calibre", came under official investigation by the French National Committee Against Hazing after receiving complaints filed by four students.[55] INSEAD's Dean, Ilian Mihov, has since suspended Welcome Week indefinitely.

According to the alumni organisers, the notion behind Welcome Week's hoax is to "burst the inflated egos of those who felt their acceptance on the course put them above the rest of society." However, students who had gone through Welcome Week previously had expressed being made to feel unnecessarily embarrassed and evoked scenes more akin to a fraternity initiation.[56]

Partnerships and alliances

INSEAD is in alliance with:

INSEAD has exchange programmes with:

INSEAD has degrees partnership with:


Centres of excellence

INSEAD has 15 research centres conducting research in different business and geographical areas. These include:

  • Centre for Decision Making and Risk Analysis (CDMRA)[69]
  • Emerging Markets Institute[70]
  • Healthcare Management Initiative[71]
  • INSEAD Africa Initiative[72]
INSEAD - Blue Ocean Strategy Institute
  • INSEAD Blue Ocean Strategy Institute[73]
  • INSEAD Centre for Entrepreneurship (ICE)[74]
  • INSEAD Corporate Governance Initiative[75]
  • INSEAD eLab[76]
  • INSEAD European Competitiveness Initiative[77]
  • INSEAD Global Leadership Centre (IGLC)[78]
  • INSEAD Global Private Equity Initiative (GPEI)[79]
  • INSEAD Innovation and Policy Initiative (IIPI)[80]
  • INSEAD Social Innovation Centre[81]
  • INSEAD Social Science Research Centre (ISSRC)[82]
  • INSEAD-Wharton Center for Global Research and Education[83]
  • Learning Innovation Centre[84]
  • Wendel International Centre for Family Enterprise[85]
  • Women@INSEAD[86]

Teaching methods

Teaching methods at INSEAD include case studies, lectures, peer-to-peer learning, tutorials, group work, simulations and role-plays.

Case studies

The case method is largely used in the classroom as a teaching method. Business case studies authored by INSEAD professors are the second most widely used in classrooms by business schools globally, after Harvard Business School's case studies.

The business cases that have been designed at INSEAD have received many awards,[87][better source needed] are made available in case clearing houses, and are used by many other business schools.

Business simulation games

Business simulation games are used by INSEAD. Many of them have been designed by INSEAD faculties, and used in many institutions, including:[88]

  • The EIS simulation[89] (change management)
  • FORAD[90] (finance)
  • INDUSTRAT (marketing)
  • Markstrat (marketing)

Innovation in education

A number of researches and initiatives are conducted at INSEAD to incorporate innovative learning approaches.

Centers conduct research in learning technologies and approaches such as:

  • INSEAD CALT (the Centre of Advanced Learning Technologies)[91] has been involved in many research projects, and in particular projects funded by the research programmes from the European Commission on approaches such as business simulations, or learning communities.
  • INSEAD Learning Innovation Centre[92] was funded to managing innovation in INSEAD programme design and delivery. For instance, INSEAD Learning Innovation Centre has introduced the use of the Second Life virtual world as an education tool.[93]
  • INSEAD eLab[94] is the INSEAD center that connects research sponsors and external collaborators interested in the area of big data and data analytics with INSEAD's expertise in this broad area. INSEAD eLab conducts research and supports teaching.


INSEAD currently has nine F500 leaders.[95] The Alumni Association was founded by a group of alumni in 1961, and works in close partnership with INSEAD to provide services to the global INSEAD alumni community of 46,000+ members in 171 countries.[96] Many are members of the INSEAD International Alumni Association, which has 46 national alumni associations.[97]

In addition to the national associations, INSEAD alumni have formed clubs and groups dedicated to specific industries and activities.[98] These include the Hubert Society, Energy Club,[99] INSEAD Healthcare Alumni Network[100] and Salamander Golf Society.[101]

See also


  1. ^ "Finances & Endowment | INSEAD Annual Report - 2020" .
  2. ^ Gallezo-Estaura, Krisana (14 January 2015). "Meet INSEAD's new chairman of the board" . Singapore Business Review. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  3. ^ "Ilian Mihov appointed Dean of INSEAD" . MBA Today. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  4. ^ "INSEAD Definition" . Investopedia. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  5. ^ "What's Different About INSEAD's Master In Management?" . 30 May 2019.
  6. ^ "Financial Times Global MBA Ranking 2021" .
  7. ^ "QS Global MBA Ranking 2020" .
  8. ^ "Where did FT500 chief executives go to business school" .
  9. ^ "Which Business Schools Have The Most Billionaire Alumni?" .
  10. ^ "Mamuka Bakhtadze" .
  11. ^ "The rise of the MBA politicians" .
  12. ^ "World's top 100 universities for producing millionaires" .
  13. ^ "The 20 colleges around the world that produce the richest grads" .
  14. ^ "INSEAD Sustainability Report 2019" (PDF).
  15. ^ "MarchINSEAD 2021 language policy" (PDF). 2020.
  16. ^ "Who Made America? | Innovators | Georges Doriot" .
  17. ^ "INSEAD at 50: The defining years" . INSEAD. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  18. ^ "Our History" . INSEAD. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  19. ^ "About INSEAD - Our History" . Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  20. ^ The Institutional Development of Business Schools . Oxford University Press. 13 November 2014. ISBN 9780191022371. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  21. ^ "About INSEAD - Our History" . Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  22. ^ "Wharton-INSEAD Center for Global Research and Education" . Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  23. ^ "Tiemba's Prominent Position" . Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  24. ^ "MBA Programmes - Partnerships" . Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  25. ^ "INSEAD Launches S$55 Leadership Development Centre" . Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  26. ^ "About The Hoffmann Global Institute for Business and Society" . Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  27. ^ "INSEAD Dean Mihov on Sustainability, STEM & School's Future" . Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  28. ^ Kaplan, Andreas (2018). "Andreas Kaplan, 2018, A school is "a building that has four walls…with tomorrow inside": Toward the reinvention of the business school, Business Horizons". Business Horizons. 61 (4): 599–608. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2018.03.010 .
  29. ^ "A Force for Good - A conversation with INSEAD Dean Ilian Mihov" . Developing Leaders, Issue 17 - Autumn/Fall 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  30. ^ "INSEAD - Leading Business School in Europe, Asia and Abu Dhabi" . Between-Us. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  31. ^ Datar, Srikant M.; Garvin, David A.; Knoop, Carin-Isabel (May 2009). "INSEAD" . Harvard Business School Case 308-009.
  32. ^ "MBA Programme - Campus Exchange" . Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  33. ^ "MBA Programme - Campus Exchange" . Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  34. ^ "Is a summer internship necessary in a one-year MBA?" . The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  35. ^ "MBA Programme - Ten reasons to choose the INSEAD MBA" . Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  36. ^ "Welcome to INSEAD's Executive MBA programme" . Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  37. ^ "Tsinghua-INSEAD EMBA Programme (TIEMBA) - INSEAD" . 19 April 2017.
  38. ^ "清华大学" .
  39. ^ "TOP MBA - INSEAD Executive MBA" . Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  40. ^ "The INSEAD Executive Master in Consulting and Coaching for Change Programme" . Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  41. ^ "Executive Master in Consulting and Coaching for Change - Creating Reflective Change Agents" . Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  42. ^ "The INSEAD MFin - Preparing Financial Leaders" . Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  43. ^ "INSEAD PhD in Management Overview" . Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  44. ^ "INSEAD PhD in Management Programme Overview" . INSEAD. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  45. ^ "INSEAD-Wharton Alliance" .
  46. ^ "INSEAD PhD in Management Areas of Specialisation" . Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  47. ^ "INSEAD PhD in Management Fellowship and Financing" .
  48. ^ "INSEAD at a Glance" (PDF). INSEAD. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  49. ^ "INSEAD at a Glance" . INSEAD. October 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  50. ^ "QS Global MBA Rankings 2020" . Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  51. ^ "The 50 best business schools in the world 2020" . Business Insider. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  52. ^ "Global MBA Ranking 2020" . Financial Times. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  53. ^ "Business school rankings from the Financial Times -" .
  54. ^ "Business school rankings from the Financial Times -" .
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^ "Alliance Sorbonne Université" . INSEAD. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  58. ^ "Wharton–INSEAD Alliance" . Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  59. ^ "The INSEAD-Wharton Alliance" . INSEAD. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  60. ^ "INSEAD and Wharton renew strategic alliance" . INSEAD. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  61. ^ "Schools Participating in Full-Time Exchange" . Kellogg Northwestern. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  62. ^ "INSEAD & CEIBS partnership strengthens commitment to developing global business" . INSEAD. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  63. ^ "MIT Master of Science in Management Studies" . MIT Sloan. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  64. ^ "INSEAD and Paul H. Nitze School offer dual-degree programme" . INSEAD. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  65. ^ "INSEAD And Tsinghua Sem Ink New Agreement For The Tiemba Programme" . INSEAD. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  66. ^ "Tsinghua-INSEAD Executive MBA" . INSEAD. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  67. ^ "INSEAD and art center college of design partnership" . INSEAD. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  68. ^ "Teachers College, Columbia University Launches MA/MBA Programs to Prepare School Leaders in Education and Business Management" . Teachers College. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  69. ^ "Home - Centre for Decision Making and Risk Analysis - INSEAD" .
  70. ^ "Research - INSEAD" . 28 July 2015.
  71. ^ "Healthcare Management Initiative - INSEAD" . 23 February 2017.
  72. ^ "Centres of Excellence - INSEAD" . 15 August 2015.
  73. ^ "INSEAD Blue Ocean Strategy Institute" . 14 August 2015.
  74. ^ "Centres of Excellence - INSEAD" . 15 August 2015.
  75. ^ "Centres of Excellence - INSEAD" . 15 August 2015.
  76. ^ "INSEAD eLab" . 14 August 2015.
  77. ^ "INSEAD European Competitiveness Initiative" . 14 August 2015.
  78. ^ "Centres of Excellence - INSEAD" . 15 August 2015.
  79. ^ "Global Private Equity Initiative - INSEAD" . 14 August 2015.
  80. ^ "Centres of Excellence - INSEAD" . 15 August 2015.
  81. ^ "INSEAD - Social Innovation Centre" . 14 August 2015.
  82. ^ "Research - INSEAD" . 28 July 2015.
  83. ^ "The INSEAD - Wharton Alliance - INSEAD" . 23 October 2015.
  84. ^ "Centres of Excellence - INSEAD" . 15 August 2015.
  85. ^ "Wendel International Centre for Family Enterprise - INSEAD" . 14 August 2015.
  86. ^ "Gender Initiative - INSEAD" . INSEAD. 14 August 2015.
  87. ^ "News - INSEAD" . 6 February 2015.
  88. ^ "INSEAD Simulations" . INSEAD. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  89. ^ "Faculty & Research - INSEAD" . 19 May 2015.
  90. ^ "Faculty & Research - INSEAD" . 19 May 2015.
  91. ^ INSEAD CALT (Centre for Advanced Learning Technologies)
  92. ^ "INSEAD Learning Innovation Centre" . INSEAD. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  93. ^ Murray, Sarah (27 October 2008). "Technology: Networking widens EMBA net" . Financial Times.
  94. ^ "INSEAD elab" . INSEAD. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  95. ^ "From MBA to CEO" . Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  96. ^ "INSEAD - Alumni - Global Alumni Network" . INSEAD. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  97. ^ "Welcome to the INSEAD Alumni Community" . Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  98. ^ "Alumni Interest Groups" . Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  99. ^ "Energy Network" . INSEAD. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  101. ^ "Salamander Golf Society" . Retrieved 19 November 2013.

External links


Information as of: 14.08.2021 10:12:36 CEST

Source: Wikipedia (Authors [History])    License of the text: CC-BY-SA-3.0. Creators and licenses of the individual images and media can either be found in the caption or can be displayed by clicking on the image.

Changes: Design elements were rewritten. Wikipedia specific links (like "Redlink", "Edit-Links"), maps, niavgation boxes were removed. Also some templates. Icons have been replaced by other icons or removed. External links have received an additional icon.

Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.
See also: Legal Notice & Privacy policy.